Nicaragua 2017

Nicaragua is a multiparty constitutional republic, but actions by the ruling Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) party resulted in the de facto concentration of power in a single party, with an authoritarian executive branch exercising significant control over the legislative, judicial, and electoral functions. Although Nicaragua has made progress in improving education and health services and establishing a free market economy since 1990, it remains the second poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with significant social inequities, particularly in rural areas. One out of every six children in Nicaragua is malnourished. July 29, 2017 marked the day that the hand of God touched the nation of Nicaragua in epic proportions. Hundreds of thousands of people gathered across Nicaragua in 12 different locations. Millions of people watched through a live broadcast. We saw a unified nation that came together under one banner. (TODAY NICARAGUA) Reaching the United States from Managua took her six hours in an airplane. One year later, when a strange new virus put the world in check, she decided to return to Nicaragua to be with her family. That trip took her 32 days, travelling over 3,290 miles of highway plus eleven days stranded at the border. Do not travel to Nicaragua due to COVID-19.Reconsider travel to Nicaragua due to civil unrest, crime, limited healthcare availability, and arbitrary enforcement of laws.. Read the Department of State’s COVID-19 page before you plan any international travel. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Level 3 Travel Health Notice for Nicaragua due to COVID-19. Nicaragua 2017. Cup of Excellence: The winning lots are coffees scoring 86 points and above in each cupping by both the National Jury and the Cup of Excellence International Jury. These coffees have each been cupped a minimum of five different times during the cupping process. The lot size indicates the number of 30kg boxes. Population Pyramids: Nicaragua - 2017. Other indicators visualized on maps: (In English only, for now) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) Nicaragua 2017. 02/20/2017 by carolesmyth. Despite a few misadventures and technological learning experiences, our team is doing well here in Nicaragua! The warm breezes and lush greenery are surrounding us as we sit on the veranda in our rocking chairs at El Ayudante. We’ve been shopping for different projects: food bags for our Maranonal ... Wedged between Costa Rica and Honduras, Nicaragua is a good all-round destination.Think beautiful cathedrals, elegant architecture, a ton of history, and loads of nature to get to grips with. However, Nicaragua was hit with renewed political trouble in 2018, and it was hit hard. There have been widespread protests against a corrupt government and these are sometimes met with force. Nicaragua, country of Central America.It is the largest of the Central American republics. Nicaragua can be characterized by its agricultural economy, its history of autocratic government, and its imbalance of regional development—almost all settlement and economic activity are concentrated in the western half of the country.

5 Servicios comparables al Gigante de Netflix 2020

2020.09.24 19:30 jesaes100 5 Servicios comparables al Gigante de Netflix 2020

El más popular de todos es, sin dudas Netflix, pero está lejos de ser el único y tampoco podamos decir que sea el mejor. De hecho, no podemos decir que exista un «mejor servicio para ver películas online», ya que todos ofrecen cosas diferentes que sea adaptan a distintas necesidades.

https://preview.redd.it/s10mtml3s4p51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=eba81d0ccddf13397d06433de863ec312cbc6276
Si lo que buscas es una alternativa a Netflix, pero gratis, acá tienes la mejor opción al día de hoy, para muchos se compara con Netflix pero sin pagar una mensualidad: http://tedigo-como.blogspot.com/2017/01/como-ver-tv-online-gratis-metodo-2017.html

Amazon Video

Precio: US$ 99 por año* Plataformas: Al igual que Netflix, disponible en una gran variedad de dispositivos y sistemas operativos (accede a la lista completa aquí). Disponibilidad en Latinoamérica: Desafortunadamente, Amazon Video solo está disponible en Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico. Contenido original: En estos momentos, Amazon Video probablemente sea la única de las plataformas de esta lista que puede competir con Netflix en este aspecto. De hecho, en 2015, su serie Mozart in the Jungle obtuvo el Globo de Oro a mejor serie de comedia, un galardón que ninguna serie de Netflix ha alcanzado. *Amazon video es en realidad uno de los beneficios de la suscripción a Amazon Prime que, entre otras cosas, inlcuye también envíos más rápido, un servicio de música y otro de «alquiler» de ebooks. El precio corresponde a todo este paquete.

Hulu

Precio: Desde US$ 7,99 por mes Plataformas: Aunque la lista quizás no sea tan amplia como la de Netflix, Hulu sí está disponible en varios dispositivos (encuentra la lista completa aquí). Disponibilidad en Latinoamérica: Por el momento, tampoco se puede acceder al contenido de Hulu fuera de los Estados Unidos. Contenido original: Cuenta con algunos productos propios, aunque no tan populares como los de Netflix y Amazon. Sí cuenta con un catálogo interesante de series exclusivas a este servicio, incluyendo el hecho de que por un dólar más se puede acceder a contenido de Showtime.

Crackle

Precio: Gratis* Plataformas: La cobertura no es tan amplia como las plataformas anteriores (en especial Netflix y Amazon Video), pero puede utilizarse tanto en móviles, como en computadoras y algunos dispositivos de streaming, SmartTVs y consolas (la lista completa se encuentra aquí). Disponibilidad en Latinoamérica: Disponible en 17 países latinoamericanos incluyendo México, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panamá, República Dominicana y todos los países hispanohablantes de Latinoamérica (así como Brasil). Contenido original: Crackle tampoco es muy fuerte en contenido original. El más popular de sus productos es, probablemente, Comedians in a Car Getting Coffee con Jerry Seinfeld. *Crackle es gratis, sí, lo cual es maravilloso y, como dicen, «a caballo regalado no se le miran los dientes». Sin embargo, vale aclarar que (al menos por ahora) el precio a pagar son anuncios y un catálogo bastante más acotado que el de los servicios anteriores.

Sling TV

Precio: Desde US$ 20 por mes Plataformas: Hasta ahora este aspecto está bastante limitado. Puedes ver Sling TV en tu móvil o computadora (si tienen sistema operativo Android o iOS para teléfonos y Windows o Macintosh computadoras), algunas SmartTV y solo un par de dispositivos de streaming. Disponibilidad en Latinoamérica: Sling TV se encuentra disponible únicamente dentro de los Estados Unidos, pero es un servicio muy nuevo, así que no perdamos las esperanzas. Contenido original: Sling TV no tiene contenido original, pero lo que lo separa del resto es que sigue una premisa completamente diferente que busca llenar un gran vacío que dejan los otros servicios: la televisión en vivo. Sí, con las plataformas anteriores puedes ver muchas películas y series de televisión, pero, ¿qué pasa, por ejemplo, con los eventos deportivos? Sling TV te da acceso a canales como ESPN y CNN «en vivo», algo que por ahora los servicios como Netflix no logran hacer.

Qubit.tv

Precio: US$ 5 aprox* Plataformas: Se accede a los contenidos desde la página web qubit.tv Disponibilidad en Latinoamérica: Qubit es una empresa argentina con acuerdos con empersas en países como Paraguay y Uruguay. Contenido original: Qubit no cuenta con contenido original y su catálogo no incluye por el momento series de TV, aunque sí cuenta con películas que son difíciles (por no decir imposibles) de encontrar en otros sitios, incluyendo varios títulos del cine argentino. *La página de Qubit lista el precio de la suscripción mensual como 90 pesos argentinos y no incluye contenidos a los que se puede acceder en formato alquiler. Lo interesante es que la empresa ha hecho acuedos con algunos proveedores de Internet para poder pagar el servicio por ese medio en lugar de utilizando tarjeta de crédito (abriendo la posibilidad a quienes no la poseen).
submitted by jesaes100 to espanol [link] [comments]


2020.09.20 18:01 Lonestar767 Indian doctors blame the Gates campaign for a devastating non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) epidemic that paralyzed 490,000 children beyond expected rates between 2000 and 2017.

South African newspapers complained, “We are guinea pigs for the drug makers.” Nelson Mandela’s former Senior Economist, Professor Patrick Bond, describes Gates’ philanthropic practices as “ruthless and immoral.”
In 2010, the Gates Foundation funded a phase 3 trial of GSK’s experimental malaria vaccine, killing 151 African infants and causing serious adverse effects including paralysis, seizure, and febrile convulsions to 1,048 of the 5,949 children.
In 2010, Gates committed $10 billion to the WHO saying, “We must make this the decade of vaccines.”
A month later, Gates said in a Ted Talk that new vaccines “could reduce population”.
In 2014, Kenya’s Catholic Doctors Association accused the WHO of chemically sterilizing millions of unwilling Kenyan women with a “tetanus” vaccine campaign. Independent labs found a sterility formula in every vaccine tested. After denying the charges, WHO finally admitted it had been developing the sterility vaccines for over a decade. Similar accusations came from Tanzania, Nicaragua, Mexico, and the Philippines.
In 2014, the Gates Foundation funded tests of experimental HPV vaccines, developed by Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) and Merck, on 23,000 young girls in remote Indian provinces. Approximately 1,200 suffered severe side effects, including autoimmune and fertility disorders. Seven died. Indian government investigations charged that Gates-funded researchers committed pervasive ethical violations: pressuring vulnerable village girls into the trial, bullying parents, forging consent forms, and refusing medical care to the injured girls. The case is now in the country’s Supreme Court.
A 2017 study (Morgenson et. al. 2017) showed that WHO’s popular DTP vaccine is killing more African children than the diseases it prevents. DTP-vaccinated girls suffered 10x the death rate of children who had not yet received the vaccine. WHO has refused to recall the lethal vaccine which it forces upon tens of millions of African children annually.
Global public health advocates around the world accuse Gates of steering WHO’s agenda away from the projects that are proven to curb infectious diseases: clean water, hygiene, nutrition, and economic development.
The Gates Foundation only spends about $650 million of its $5 billion dollar budget on these areas.
submitted by Lonestar767 to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 14:00 Sabur1991 English-speaking Survivor seasons Rankdown in our Russian community 2020 (we do it once in three or four years) - WINNER and the whole rankings!

So we've recently completed our poll in the russian Survivor community. Throughout the summer I've been posting here each four or five eliminated seasons. So in the end, it boiled down to Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains and to Australian Survivor 2017. And the winner in the final round (I have to say, it was quite a definitive win) is Australian Survivor 2017! Great characters, cinematic views and a very well-built storyline (and a few blindsides along the way) made this season our favorite one. Survivor 20: Heroes vs. Villains places 2nd - strongest charaterwise cast, excellent storyline, villain master-chefs Russell and Parvati, and Tyson voting himself out have always been our favorite. We love it! It's just we love Australian Survivor 2017 more. Maybe, that's my guess, if Heroes vs. Villains had all episodes lasting over one hour and they showed all characters better, they would've won. HvV still had Courtney with four confessionals in nine episodes.
SO, HERE IS OUR COMPLETE RANKINGS (It will be interesting to see how the placements will correspond to the WSSYW 2020 on this reddit).
50th - Survivor: Redemption Island
49th - Survivor: Thailand
48th - Survivor: One World
47th - Survivor: South Pacific
46th - Survivor New Zealand: Nicaragua
45th - Survivor: Fiji
44th - Survivor: Nicaragua
43th - Survivor: Ghost Island
42th - Survivor: Caramoan
41th - Survivor: Island of the Idols
40th - Survivor: Borneo
39th - Survivor: All Stars
38th - Survivor: Africa
37th - Survivor: Marquesas
36th - Survivor: Guatemala
35th - Survivor: Samoa
34th - Survivor: Vanuatu
33th - Survivor: Worlds Apart
32th - Australian Survivor 2016
31th - Survivor New Zealand: Thailand
30th - Survivor: Panama - Exile Island
29th - Survivor: Heroes vs. Healers vs. Hustlers
28th - Survivor: Edge of Extinction
27th - Australian Survivor: All Stars
26th - Survivor: Game Changers
25th - Survivor South Africa: Philippines
24th - Survivor: Gabon
23th - Survivor: Palau
22th - Survivor: Kaoh Rong
21th - Survivor: Cook Islands
20th - Survivor: Blood vs. Water
19th - Survivor: The Australian Outback
18th - Survivor South Africa: Champions
17th - Survivor: Tocantins
16th - Survivor: Philippines
15th - Survivor: San Juan Del Sur
14th - Survivor South Africa: Island of Secrets
13th - Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders II
12th - Survivor: China
11th - Survivor: The Amazon
10th - Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders I
9th - Survivor: Pearl Islands
8th - Survivor: David vs. Goliath
7th - Survivor: Millennials vs. Gen X
6th - Survivor: Winners at War
5th - Survivor: Micronesia
4th - Survivor: Cagayan
3rd - Survivor: Cambodia
2nd - Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains
1st - Australian Survivor 2017
submitted by Sabur1991 to survivor [link] [comments]


2020.09.03 22:36 Sabur1991 English-speaking Survivor seasons Rankdown in our Russian community 2020 (we do it once in three or four years) - Places 8-3

WE ARE FINISHING! This summer we're conducting all English-speaking Survivor seasons ranking in our Russian community. I would like to share the results with you each time after we eliminate four or five seasons.
The rankdown includes 50 seasons: 40 U.S. seasons, 5 Australian Seasons (starting with AUS 2016), 3 South Africa seasons (Staring with Champions) and 2 New Zealand seasons.
All 50 seasons have been divided into five random groups of ten. On the first day, we conducted the poll for the worst season from each group, and on the second day we chose the very worst season out of this bottom five. Then, on the third day, we conducted the poll ONLY in the group the eliminated season came from to determine the next worst season and this season took the place of the 50th placed season in the group of five that are up for elimination. And so on, and so on, i.e. we eliminate one season in each two days.
PREVIOUS PLACEMENTS:
50th - Survivor: Redemption Island
49th - Survivor: Thailand
48th - Survivor: One World
47th - Survivor: South Pacific
46th - Survivor New Zealand: Nicaragua
45th - Survivor: Fiji
44th - Survivor: Nicaragua
43th - Survivor: Ghost Island
42th - Survivor: Caramoan
41th - Survivor: Island of the Idols
40th - Survivor: Borneo
39th - Survivor: All Stars
38th - Survivor: Africa
37th - Survivor: Marquesas
36th - Survivor: Guatemala
35th - Survivor: Samoa
34th - Survivor: Vanuatu
33th - Survivor: Worlds Apart
32th - Australian Survivor 2016
31th - Survivor New Zealand: Thailand
30th - Survivor: Panama - Exile Island
29th - Survivor: Heroes vs. Healers vs. Hustlers
28th - Survivor: Edge of Extinction
27th - Australian Survivor: All Stars
26th - Survivor: Game Changers
25th - Survivor South Africa: Philippines
24th - Survivor: Gabon
23th - Survivor: Palau
22th - Survivor: Kaoh Rong
21th - Survivor: Cook Islands
20th - Survivor: Blood vs. Water
19th - Survivor: The Australian Outback
18th - Survivor South Africa: Champions
17th - Survivor: Tocantins
16th - Survivor: Philippines
15th - Survivor: San Juan Del Sur
14th - Survivor South Africa: Island of Secrets
13th - Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders II
12th - Survivor: China
11th - Survivor: The Amazon
10th - Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders I
9th - Survivor: Pearl Islands
During the previous days we determined places #8 - #3.
8th place - Survivor U.S. Season 37: David vs. Goliath. As much as this season is beautiful, it slightly gives way to more legendary star seasons. I think that's pretty much it. Nobody really has anything bad to say about DvG, it's just not as epic as some of the seasons that are left. Well, and not everybody likes the winner's arc.
7th place - Survivor U.S. Season 33: Millennials vs. Gen X. In Russia MvGx are ranked visibly higher than in U.S. We love the top male cast which all made it to the few last episodes of the season, we value highly Adam's and Jay's relationships where they are enemies on the game level but friends on the personal level. Finally, this season had quite a few great Tribals. But... again, MvGx is not as epic as those that are higher.
6th place - Survivor U.S. Season 40: Winners at War. Well, many still assume that WaW got so high solely because of the cast. Actually it may be. This season, in my opinion, is more epic because of the winners cast than it's because of the gamplay. Because, definitely not everybody likes Edge of Extinction, Fire Tokens or endless advantages. This is only the perfect ending of the twenty-year Survivor history.
5th place - Survivor U.S. Season 16: Micronesia. Great pros of Micronesia are of course most Tribals after the merge which ended with "WTF?!" Eliza's stick, Ozzy's blindside, Amanda's idol and of course Erik's dumb move are all legendary moments in history. The biggest Micronesia minus is of course three evacuations which didn't let Cirie win. Period.
4th place - Survivor U.S. Season 28: Cagayan. Of course Tony is great and nobody denies that. He singlehandedly made this season legendary. But that's exactly it - "singlehandedly". Other than him, there weren't too many people playing the game hard. But, really, Tony is so super that him alone is enough to put the season this high.
3rd place - Survivor U.S. Season 31: Cambodia. This was the hardcore season of the hardcore gameplaying, and, as much as this is a huge factor, it's also a curse. Because, quite a few Russian fans don't like gamebots, and Cambodia is one the most gamebottiest seasons. And, while the highest level of the gameplay let this season surpass Cagayan and co., it didn't let it go to the Final Two.
SO IT'S NOW BETWEEN SURVIVOR: HEROES VS. VILLAINS AND AUSTRALIAN SURVIVOR 2017!!!
submitted by Sabur1991 to survivor [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 07:52 SteamPoweredShoelace Trump, Biden, and War

This article does a good job of summing up why given the two lousy options, I think Biden is the greater of two evils. https://consortiumnews.com/2020/08/31/patrick-lawrence-voting-in-a-de-facto-military-state/
It has to do with the state department, and war. War is the defining characteristic of American society, and it's what sets us apart from other nations. War is what drives the US economy, empowers US corporations, and defines domestic policy at home. War is the opportunity cost of not having health care, public services, and scientific research. It's the largest public expenditure in the USA, accounting for more than half of all public funding, and the combined effect of sanctions, destroyed sanitation and power infrastructure, resultant poverty, and immediate violent deaths causes millions of deaths world wide, and displaces 10s of millions of others. What the US is doing now is no different than what Europe was doing during the age of exploration. But the population sizes, technology, and consequences are two orders of magnitude greater. War is what sustains the American era. An era that will be marked and remembered for not preventing catastrophic climate change. despite both the causes and consequences being well known.
Neither of these candidates have the power to do anything about this. But one of them doesn't want to. Joe Biden was the VP of Barak Obama for 8 years. He was chosen because Barak Obama, the neoliberal lovechild of an investment bank and a weapons manufacturer, was considered too leftest, and the DNC backers wanted a conservative to keep him in check.
Obviously they needn't have worried. Obama was never a threat to the global order of billionaires. Despite running on a platform of "change", anti-war, and "closing guantanamo bay", he never attempted any of these campaign promises, and happily went to war of 5 additional countries (Libya, Syria, Somalia, Yemen, and Niger) while continuing and escalating the wars of the Bush administration. His administration also overthrew leaders in Honduras, Ukraine, Brazil, Nicaragua, and probably more, this isn't a comprehensive list. Ukraine was particularly bloody, with snipers murdering police and protesters in the streets and resulted in a new war... a coup that Biden was intimately involved in, and personally profited from.
Which brings us to Donald Trump. The anti-Obama. Who ran an right-wing anti-war anti-establishment platform and won because the Democrats blocked a leftest movement, and chose to run a conservative pro-war candidate instead (The Butcher of Libya. Her bloodlust was too much for even Obama, and he had to block her from directly engaging Russia in Syria.). A mistake that they repeated in 2020 by again blocking a leftest movement, and running a conservative pro-war candidate again.. (But as an extra fuck-you to the people, as racism became the biggest social call in 2020, they chose the architect of the 1994 Crime Bill for president, and a cop as VP. It so ridiculous as to be comical)
When Trump first took office in 2017, the establishment figures he campaigned against (the state department, the Democratic leadership, and even the Republican leadership) immediately attacked his anti-war platform. They accused him of colluding with Russia, a completely debunked fake conspiracy theory that was hugely successful at preventing any dialogue between the USA and Russia. Trump's response was to flip the script and go full anti-USSR to show how tough he was, and now we are in a new nuclear arms race. It's 1968 all over again.
He has been less hawkish in other areas though. He made weak but substantial efforts to exit the Afghanistan and Syrian wars. Both failed, he was blocked by the state department, democrats, and his own cabinet. But to his credit, he hasn't entered the USA into a new war in 3 full years. That may not sound like much, but it's something that no president other than Trump has ever achieved during my lifetime. In fact, as far as I can tell, this is the first time it's even ever been attempted.
It's not a very high bar to set (which tells you about the state of things). Sanctions should be considered acts of war, and new sanctions under Trump are killing people in Iran, Venezuela, and elsewhere. And we've recently overthrown the governments of Bolivia, and most-likely we also did it in Mali.
But this isn't about good options. We don't have any. The dogs of war are already wringing their fingers as they line up in support of Joe Biden. They smell blood. A president who will offer them no resistance whatsoever. A 'yes man' who says what he's told to say, and deposits his blood money every month. If Biden wins the next presidency will be marked by a completely unrestrained state department.
I would never tell anyone to vote for the lesser of two evils, and that's not what the letter is about. But if you wanted to know how these evils stack up to each other, I hope this gave you some idea.
A Biden presidency scares the living daylights out of me.
submitted by SteamPoweredShoelace to WayOfTheBern [link] [comments]


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2020.08.29 03:42 Someone-00 Guns, the medical profession, and bad history Part 1: US gun culture saved Europe in the World Wars and Cold War

Part 2 here
I found out about Doctors for Responsible Gun Ownership when I first encountered the following article:
The US ‘Gun Culture’ That Saved Europe does not occur in a vacuum
(by the way, check the comments to get a real laugh)
Anyway, the writer is none other than Miguel Faria, a doctor and gun rights advocate who believes that Europe owes it's salvation in the World Wars to...American gun culture? I dug rather deep, finding out that Faria and his ilk at DRGO mangled the history of firearms in the US, the World Wars, US crime, the Wild West, and other issues so badly, that I had to mention it.
Offending links:
https://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint-articles/is-gun-control-really-about-people-control/
https://drgo.us/review-america-guns-and-freedom-a-journey-by-miguel-a-faria-jr-md/
Faria claims that the weak, spineless Europeans, with no gun culture, allowed the Germans to overwhelm them in two world wars, yet the brave US saved their miserable, gun-hating asses twice. This is as you can tell, is utter horseshit, as it simply babbles on without any concrete evidence (save, of course, for a brief mention of Sgt. Alvin York as an example). Outside of this one anecdote (which, to Faria's credit, is certainly inspirational but not a definitive illustration of US military skill) there is no concrete evidence. Furthermore, it ignores important factors such as troop numbers, military tactics, resources, geography, and industry in favor of a nonsensical narrative. Furthermore, Faria continues to push the "guns would have stopped the Nazis" cliche.
Of course, this is far from the only badhistory I found. As it turns out, Faria and his friends at DRGO also believe that easy gun laws stop all sorts of crime and other nonsensical tropes about guns, which I'll get to in part two.
So let's start at part one: how the World Wars were stopped by gun culture. Faria does little to help his case with WWI by mentioning the case of Alvin York and using next to nothing else as evidence. The fact that the Germans where outnumbered, with 13 million troops against a total of 15 million from the Allied Powers, escapes him. As does the blockade that starved the entirety of Germany, as well as the fact that many German sailors were carrying out mutinies and that the country fell into unrest. Or even the fact that the Central Powers were falling apart one-by -one, or that Germany had just finished removing the Russians (themselves a major foe) from the war when America arrived. He even glosses over the many Allied victories, such as the 2nd Marne and 100 Days Offensive, stating that
Many Americans in the 21st century still cling to their guns and their Bibles, and it stands to reason that the alleged “gun culture” mentality and patriotic outlook may not be gained solely by an 8-week army basic training boot camp. Life experience, patriotism and the attitude to fight along your fellow soldiers in a just cause—such as freedom and a country’s way of life—do not appear in a vacuum.
Um... ok. What evidence do you have for this? And furthermore, if having high gun ownership makes you good at winning wars, then why did the US suffer a draw in Korea? Or lose Vietnam? Or fall into quagmires like Iraq and Afghanistan? Overall Faria chooses a completely unexplained factor as the reason for US victory, one which not one historian will take seriously. Is he forgetting the ferocity with which the other Allied Powers fought before the Americans arrived? The multiple fights at Ypres, Verdun, Vimy Ridge, the First Marne, Cambrai, are all those so forgettable?
WWI was won for a number of reasons. Woodrow Wilson's overtures to the German government, combined with more pacifistic leaders rising to power as the German military broke apart, and unrest at home all lead to Germany's surrender. Germany's Ottoman allies were being pummeled by British and Arabic forces. The Austro-Hungarians were on their knees, and the Bulgarians had quit the war. American forces would not be present in full until Spring 1918, when the German Spring Offensive, largely held back by the same Europeans Faria dismisses, held the Germans back long enough for the Americans to turn the tide. Germans forces overexerted themselves just as American reinforcements, fresh, ready for combat, and larger in numbers, began to arrive in Europe.
Faria then proceeds to brag about how the "pusillanimous Europeans" did nothing as Nazi Germany goose-stepped all over them. In Poland, Hitler triumphed due to the Poles simply being unprepared to deal with the twin Nazi and Soviet assaults. No declaration of war, combined with new tactics enabled the Germans to overrun the Poles in their Blitzkrieg. Norway fell due to the Allies having to abandon it to protect France. German forces conquered France by maneuvering past the Maginot Line and driving the British out at Dunkirk. The French Army, meanwhile, suffered from poor leadership and failed to repel the German Army, which had the element of surprise, along with speed, on their side. Finally, Greece fell due to an army that was too small, not prepared enough, and had inadequate support from it's neighbors and the British/Commonwealth forces, as documented by George E. Blau in his book The German Campaign in the Balkans.
As for the spineless Europeans that are constantly scorned, Faria forgets that in every nation the Nazis invaded, there were dedicated resistance groups. The Yugoslavian resistance, which beat the Croats, helped liberate Sarajevo, and took Trieste. The Soviet partisans, who fought for their country when their armies could not. The Germans in the Ruhr pocket who helped capture Dusseldorf. Or perhaps the Italians, who liberated Naples and killed a German general or even the French Resistance, who fought to free Paris and) made up for their lack of military prowess with their sabotage and spying.
American industry also was critical, too. The efficiency at which the US produced vehicles and other materials made them able to overwhelm their opposition, especially with the added benefit of being out of range from enemy bombers:
War production profoundly changed American industry. Companies already engaged in defense work expanded. Others, like the automobile industry, were transformed completely. In 1941, more than three million cars were manufactured in the United States. Only 139 more were made during the entire war. Instead, Chrysler made fuselages. General Motors made airplane engines, guns, trucks and tanks. Packard made Rolls-Royce engines for the British air force. And at its vast Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan, the Ford Motor Company performed something like a miracle 24-hours a day. The average Ford car had some 15,000 parts. The B-24 Liberator long-range bomber had 1,550,000. One came off the line every 63 minutes.Shipyards turned out tonnage so fast that by the autumn of 1943 all Allied shipping sunk since 1939 had been replaced. In 1944 alone, the United States built more planes than the Japanese did from 1939 to 1945. By the end of the war, more than half of all industrial production in the world would take place in the United States.
Patriotism of soldiers certainly helps, yet the fanaticism of such countries as Japan and Germany did not win them the war. Japan's industry was unable to catch up with the sheer industrial might of the US (just look how fast each side could build aircraft carriers, for example). Germany, meanwhile, had to divide up their resources for the war effort, according to the United States Strategic Bombing Survey. German industry was disabled by repeated air raids that caused massive devastation:
In the wake of these attacks there are great paths of destruction. In Germany, 3,600,000 dwelling units, approximately 20% of the total, were destroyed or heavily damaged. Survey estimates show some 300,000 civilians killed and 780,000 wounded. The number made homeless aggregates 7,500,000. The principal German cities have been largely reduced to hollow walls and piles of rubble. German industry is bruised and temporarily paralyzed. These are the scars across the face of the enemy, the preface to the victory that followed.
The air raids that harassed Germany, were most effective when combined with a divided front. With up to 16 million American soldiers committed to the entire war, it would be hard to argue that the Nazis, (with 20 million) could sustain themselves against half that amount when combined with the scores of Soviet soldiers and the 5 million Brits (along with other Allied forces) also committed to the conflict.
Faria also arrogantly assumes that the Swiss were not invaded due to their zealous gun culture. More likely theories include the fact that the Swiss were not only tough fighters but could use the rugged terrain to their advantage. Furthermore, it's believed that the Nazis wanted to use the country's banking system to store their gold. As such, an invasion would likely ruin their financial interests.
Faria and others, such as Robert B Young, claim that authoritarian regimes can be destroyed by gun ownership. Nazis (surprise, surprise) are brought up. This is a fallacy that has many reasons for being wrong. First off, why have Australia, Canada, the UK, and Japan not become dictatorships after passing far stricter gun laws? Second of all, the supposed gun control=Nazism argument is laughably absurd. Yes, the Nazis did ban Jews from gun ownership, yet no such gun laws are being proposed in the US. Furthermore, the claim that there would have been an uprising by German Jews going Rambo against the Nazis is undermined by many factors, not the least of which is the fact that they made up 1% of the population. That is not to say that there's any problem with them rising up, yet as pointed out by Alan E Steinweis, an expert of the Holocaust:
It is preposterous to argue that the possession of firearms would have enabled them to mount resistance against a systematic program of persecution implemented by a modern bureaucracy, enforced by a well-armed police state, and either supported or tolerated by the majority of the German population. Mr. Carson’s suggestion that ordinary Germans, had they had guns, would have risked their lives in armed resistance against the regime simply does not comport with the regrettable historical reality of a regime that was quite popular at home. Inside Germany, only the army possessed the physical force necessary for defying or overthrowing the Nazis, but the generals had thrown in their lot with Hitler early on.The failure of Jews to mount an effective defense against the Waffen-SS in the Warsaw Ghetto in 1943 provides a good example of what happens when ordinary citizens with small arms go up against a well-equipped force. The uprising in the ghetto possesses enduring symbolic significance, as an instance of Jews’ determination to resist their oppression. But the uprising saved few Jewish lives and had little to no impact on the course of either World War II or the Holocaust. Jews around the world did, to be sure, react to the Holocaust by concluding that they needed to protect themselves from anti-Semites more effectively. But they understood that this would be accomplished not through the individual acquisition of firearms, but rather through the establishment of a Jewish state with an army to defend it.
Furthermore, Nazi gun control was an anti-Semitic propaganda tool. Mass shootings were hardly a problem in Germany at the time. In fact, the Nazi gun control law, while certainly aimed at disarming the Jews, also extended access to firearms for groups the Nazi regime did approve of. Licenses for hunting, for instance, were loosened to allow ownership of any gun.
Faria cites other genocides as proof of why gun control is problematic. He and his allies list, in addition to the Nazis, the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Castro's despotism in Cuba, and the Armenian, Cambodian, and Rwandan genocides. Faria uses the Warsaw ghetto as proof, yet seems to forget that the Jews who rebelled had armament comparable to civilians in the US, with one machine gun and some pistols. The Warsaw Uprising that he approvingly speaks of, meanwhile, relied on military-grade equipment such as sub-machine guns, not hunting rifles or more civilian-oriented weapons. The fact that it was an organized effort certainly helped, but so did their use of military-grade equipment that they made or had airdropped. The Hungarian revolution is also cited. What is neglected, however, is that the rebels actually won the first phase of the revolt. It was after the Soviet military arrived that Hungary gave in. He then mentions the dictatorship of Fidel Castro claiming that shortly after he took office, he asked " ¿Armas para que?", "Weapons for whom?". Yet what Castro meant was that the weapons that his 26 of July Movement had captured from the military and police would stay as such. Furthermore, he was talking about military weapons being smuggled and stolen.
Yet I tell you here and now that two days ago elements of certain organizations broke into the San Antonio barracks, which are under the jurisdiction of Commander Camilo Cienfuegos and also under my jurisdiction as commander in chief of the armed forces, and carried away 500 small arms, (16?) machine guns, and 80,000 cartridges.
The conversation does shift to gangsters, which presumably entails taking away civilian weapons, yet the conversation revolved around other rebels stockpiling weapons to counter Castro. Faria uses the 1959 Escambray rebellion in an attempt to point out the negatives of gun control, yet seems to miss the context. The Escambray rebels lost because, according to Ernest Volkman, they had lost CIA support, the elimination of many CIA assets by Castro likely factoring in. Faria has cited the small numbers and lack of supplies. Overall, to use gun control for the Escambray rebels is simply a poor argument, as it was other factors that lead to their defeat. Furthermore, as of 2017, it is believed that there are 2.10 guns per 100 people in Cuba. In fact, citizens can purchase firearms for hunting and self-defense. Why have no residents rebelled against the government using these weapons? And seeing as how little documentation there is of Cuba's gun culture, could it be that easy access to firearms would not have made much of a difference?
Armenia, Cambodia, and Rwanda are also ridiculous comparisons. In Armenia, the government did in fact pass a law in 1911 that required Armenians surrender their weapons. It was the outbreak of WWI that made the genocide inevitable, as long-held contempt for the Armenians by the Young Turks fueled suspicions that the Armenians would rebel against them. Furthermore, the Ottomans had forbidden groups like the Armenians from gun ownership for centuries. And before the 1911 law, a pogrom killed hundreds of thousands of Armenians in the 1890s. When the Armenians did have their guns taken, it was weapons that soldiers had been given, not just hunting rifles or handguns they owned for self-defense/hunting. To argue gun control enabled the genocide forgets the nuances behind the affair. The Armenian genocide website itself argues that it was not armed resistance that would have ended the genocide, but international awareness.
Cambodia is the next example, as Pol Pot did in fact eliminate guns. Unfortunately, most of those guns belonged to the upper-class:
Firearms ownership rates in rural rice farming communities practising subsistence agriculture have been very low in Cambodia, and firearms have not been part of traditional livelihood strategies. Cambodia is not rich in large game, and game meat is not part of the typical rural diet, which is largely based on the consumption of rice, with fish as a source of protein. Nutrition surveys have demonstrated that only a minority of the rural population eat any meat at all (27–34 per cent of children aged 24–59 months were found to have eaten some meat [Helmers and Kenefick, 1999, pp. 72–73]), and most of this is derived from livestock, such as chicken, pork, and to a lesser extent cattle. Low firearms ownership rates in rural society are also the outcome of government policies and low rural incomes. To counter communist and anti-colonial insurgencies, the French colonial rulers (1863–1953) passed several laws to prevent Cambodian peasants from arming themselves (Kopel, Gallant, and Eisen, 2005, p. 6; page no. from e-publication). The laws passed between 1920 and 1938 imposed a strict licensing system and only allowed hunters to own a single gun...Available evidence suggests that unlike in many Western societies, private firearms ownership during the early period of Cambodia’s independence before the Khmer Rouge took over (1953–75) was predominantly a characteristic of the urban male elite, who were mainly in government employment
While French colonists did place restrictions on gun ownership in the 1920s and 1930s, Cambodians in general never really were interested in it. Furthermore, the efforts to counter Communist insurgents involved the very same gun control that is seen as taking citizen's rights, yet it failed to stop Pol Pot from taking the country over. Overall, one could argue that lighter gun restrictions would have given the Cambodian populace a better chance, yet since they did not really have a thriving gun culture, it would have little impact. Those that did were upper-class, meaning that they were often in the minority.
As for Rwanda, I had trouble finding good sources. Rwanda does indeed allow gun ownership, yet the one law I was looking for, which was passed in 1979, had little information for me. As such, I'll have to make do with what I could find. The 1979 law was amended in 2000, 6 years after the genocide, to do such things as ban access of government firearms from the population. Basing the gun regulations off of this chart, I assume that Faria believes that gun registration, confiscation abilities, and more were what occurred. The Small Arms Survey's analysis of Rwanda, however, makes no mention of any abuse of this confiscation system. Furthermore, the idea that registration enabled the slaughter of Tutsi tribesmen and Hutu moderates ignores the fact that many Rwandans were required since the Belgian colonization to carry ID cards which gave their ethnicity. Alain Destexhe, a Belgian politician who worked for Doctors Without Borders in areas such as Rwanda, even goes so far as to say:
it was the ethnic classification registered on identity cards introduced by the Belgians that served as the basic instrument for the genocide of the Tutsi people...
Once again, it was an organized military faction, the Rwanda Patriotic Front, that stopped the genocide. It was not armed civilians, but a faction with weapons that far outclassed those legally available to civilians in the US. To argue that gun rights would stop these regimes ignores events that Faria cites.
Look at most regimes over the past 20 years, and you'll find that they had fairly large gun ownership. Sudan had millions of civilian weapons in circulation in 2007, yet it was 12 years before Omar al-Bashir was toppled, and not due to armed civilians. In Venezuela and Libya, authoritarian regimes grew in spite of high gun ownership rates. Yet easily the most surprising is the case of Iraq, where a large portion of the population, in spite of strict gun laws, owned firearms, yet Saddam stayed in power, enduring several rebellions and only being beaten by a US-led invasion. Saudi Arabia, an authoritarian regime in it's own right, had the 7th highest rate of gun ownership in the world.
Heading back to WWII and gun cultures, Faria makes the case that the only other country to offer the Nazis any resistance, the USSR, was largely due to the NKVD holding soldiers in place. He says:
just as Stalin’s “Patriotic War” stimulated Russians to fight for their motherland, and to make sure they did so the NKVD’s SMERCH units (Soviet military police and counter-intelligence units) were everywhere behind the front lines to stiffen Soviet fighting resolve if their morale lapsed.
While certainly, the Soviets did carry out these measures, they had already repelled the assault on Moscow when this order, No. 227, which organized such units, was passed. In late 1944, blocking detachments were disbanded, largely due to improvements on the front lines, yet their impact on morale arguably helped hurt Soviet morale almost as much as it fixed it. Furthermore, Faria also seems to overestimate the role of SMERSH units. While indeed responsible for slaughtering many deserters, the reality is far from what is depicted in such media as Enemy at the Gates. Geoffrey Roberts, in his book Stalin's Wars, writes that of the detainees arrested by these units,
3,980 were arrested, 1,189 were shot, 2,961 were sent to penal battalions or companies and 131,094 were returned to their units.
Faria insists that only Americans were driven by as sense of patriotism and civic duty, yet the same holds true for the Soviets, in spite of the monstrous actions of their government. Roberts states that Stalin's skill in tapping into Soviet patriotic fervor was essential to their victory, the patriotic messages providing a useful image of a united Soviet nation against a foreign menace.
Also mentioned are Filipino, Guatemalan, and other insurgents as proof of the importance of gun ownership. Once again, Faria makes more mistakes. He assumes that privately-owned firearms are what these groups used when it was also military-grade gear. The insurgents in the Philippines, meanwhile, operated even after strict gun laws were passed by president Marcos, and likely benefited from the jungle terrain. As for Guatemala, Faria seems to once again conflate organized insurgency with gun rights. The Guatemalan insurgents that held the regime back for decades received Soviet and Czech weapons that were smuggled through Communist states such as Nicaragua. The stereotypical patriot who owns guns to protect from an oppressive regime was not the kind of individual who fought against the government. Furthermore, many of these rebels were often peasants who were likely too poor to own firearms.
Overall, Faria misuses countless events to fit his narrative. His claims are so poorly constructed that they are almost impossible to support. Those that use historic events as basis often neglect to mention other factors, such as cultural differences, or history.
Sources:
On Gun Registration, the NRA, Adolf Hitler, and Nazi Gun Laws: Exploding the Gun Culture Wars (A Call to Historians) Bernard E. Harcourt
http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/publications/by-type/yearbook/small-arms-survey-2007.html
https://www.britannica.com/place/Norway/World-War-II
Soviet Arms and Central American Turmoil, ALBERTO R. COLL
https://www.lawphil.net/executive/genogo1972/genor_6_1972.html
http://www.world-war-2.info/casualties/
https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-France-World-War-II/The-fall-of-France-June-5-25-1940
Blau, George E; THE GERMAN CAMPAIGNS IN THE BALKANS (SPRING 1941), 118
http://jpfo.org/filegen-a-m/deathgc.htm
https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/armenian-genocide
https://blog.usni.org/posts/2020/05/24/reflections-on-memorial-day
https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/battle-of-cambrai
Small Arms Survey: The Use and Perception of Weapons before and after Conflict: Evidence from Rwanda By Cécelle Meijer and Philip Verwimp
Small Arms Survey: How Many Weapons Are There in Cambodia? By Christina Wille
14/06/2000 - LAW N° 13/2000 OF 14/06/2000 MODIFYING THE DECREE-LAW N° 12/97 OF MAY, 1979 CONCERNING FIREARMS AND THEIR AMMUNITIONS
https://ucdp.uu.se/conflict/445
https://www.anesi.com/ussbs02.htm#c
Alain Destexhe, Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century; Pg 47
https://www.businessinsider.com/switzerland-gun-laws-rates-of-gun-deaths-2018-2?op=1
http://www.pbs.org/thewaat_home_war_production.htm
https://www.britannica.com/event/World-War-I
https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/breaking/ct-met-chicago-gun-laws-explainer-20171006-story.html
http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/online_exhibition_8.php
https://www.britannica.com/event/Rwanda-genocide-of-1994/Genocide
https://www.armenian-genocide.org/genocide.html
http://lanic.utexas.edu/project/castro/db/1959/19590109.html
https://www.britannica.com/event/Hungarian-Revolution-1956
https://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/15/opinion/ben-carson-is-wrong-on-guns-and-the-holocaust.html?_r=0
https://foreignpolicy.com/2013/01/09/guns-dont-kill-dictatorships-people-do/
Roberts, Geoffrey; Stalin's Wars From World War to Cold War, 1939-1953 pgs 22, 132
https://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/sudan
Volkman, Ernest 1995. "Our man in Havana. Cuban double agents 1961–1987" in Espionage: The Greatest Spy Operations of the Twentieth Century,
https://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/26/weekinreview/the-not-so-neutrals-of-world-war-ii.html
Roberts, Walter R. (1973). Tito, Mihailović and the Allies 1941–1945; pg 319
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lP70jPAqRs
https://thehistoryherald.com/articles/military-history/world-war-ii/aktion-rheinland/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Crisolli
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberation_of_Paris#FFI_uprising_(19%E2%80%9323_August))
https://www.historynet.com/french-resistance-resistant.htm
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2020.08.28 14:53 HauntedSpy SKs you never might've heard of: North America

\Note: The USA has its own separate post,* click here In this post, I'll showcase a convicted or suspected SK in each* country on the North American continent from a list I've been compiling about SKs around the world, which have yet to receive a Wikipedia entry. Each section will contain some info on their crimes, and a link/source from which I got it. I hope you'll find this as interesting as I do. Let us begin. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA: Delano Forbes (2017-2018; 4 victims) "The Vampire Killer". Killed four vagrants in Saint Paul Parish, whose blood he subsequently drained and drank. One victim was killed while he was on the run from police. Trial is ongoing. THE BAHAMAS: Cyril Darville (1980s-1990; 1-10) "The Butcher". Shot and killed 10 unlicensed taxi drivers (known as "hackers") during robberies in Nassau. Convicted of one murder. Sentenced to death, overturned and commuted to 55 years imprisonment. BARBADOS: Mark Beckles (2003; 4 victims) Over the course of four months, he raped and murdered three women and an elderly man in Bridgetown. Committed suicide in prison. BELIZE: None to my knowledge CANADA: Kenneth Ford (1940s-1952; 1-4 victims) "The Quebec Bluebeard". An American man from Vermont who drowned his wife at their Cowansville home. His three previous love interests had also died in suspicious "accidents", all of them sharing one commonality - they were pregnant. Executed at Bordeaux Prison in 1953. COSTA RICA: Jairo Díaz Aragón (2011-2016; 5-8+) "The Dota Killer". Nicaraguan laborer who massacred a family of four in Copey de Dota in March 2015, and later stabbed to death a man the following year. Suspected in the murder of a 10-year-old in Cantón de Pérez Zeledón in 2011, and killing his stepmother and granddaughter back in Nicaragua. Sentenced to 121 years imprisonment. CUBA: Simón Cepero (unknown-1944; victim count in the high double digits) A mentally-ill man who murdered various people, both in and out of prison, in the small village hamlet of San Rafael. Details on this story are a bit confusing, since it's a word-of-mouth one, but still fascinating. Murdered in 1944 by a fellow villager. DOMINICA: Patrickson Moses (2011-2017; 3+) Known by his moniker "Gravity", he sodomized and then murdered at least three homeless men on the streets of Roseau. Other homeless men have been killed in this same manner, and they're suspected of being his doing. Status unknown. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Luis Alberto Cabrera Jiménez (2002; 3 victims) Jack the Ripper copycat. Between February and May, raped and stabbed to death prostitutes in Santo Domingo, stealing their clothes afterwards. Sentenced to 30 years imprisonment. GRENADA: None to my knowledge GUATEMALA: Silas Boston (1968-1978; 2-3+ victims) American from California who murdered an English couple on his boat, hogtied the bodies and then dropped them off near the Guatemalan coast. Suspected in the death of one of his wives in Sacramento, CA, and possibly responsible for numerous others. Died in hospital before trial. HAITI: Johnson Orélus (2011-2012; 2-4 victims) Leader of a gang of kidnappers who assaulted and killed two Haitian-Americans in Port-au-Prince. Also suspected in the deaths of two other people. Imprisoned, sentence unknown. HONDURAS: Alma Cleotilde Grand Pérez (1998; 3 victims) Murdered three men in El Porvenir, hacking their bodies with an axe and using the remains in satanic rituals. Reportedly the country's first SK. Sentenced to 70 years imprisonment. JAMAICA: Kemar Thompson (2014; 8 victims) In the span of two months, he murdered men in robberies and while trying to avoid capture in Saint Catherine Parish. Sentenced to 66 years imprisonment. MEXICO: Naum Levit Torres Márquez (2015; 3+ victims) Guatemalan immigrant and self-proclaimed MS-13 gang member who murdered three prostitutes in Guadalajara between February and March. Suspected of more murders in his native country. Sentenced to 60 years imprisonment. NICARAGUA: Oliverio Castañeda Palacíos (1933; 4+ victims) "The Dandy Poisoner". Guatemalan man who poisoned family members, and possibly others, with strychnine in León. He was the uncle of left-wing student leader Oliverio Castañeda de León, who was assassinated during Gen. Romeo Lucas Garciá's reign. Palacíos himself was executed by military forces after his trial. PANAMA: Carlos Rafael Meneses Lambis (2003-2004; 2-3 victims) Raped and stabbed two prostitutes in Bethania and Veracruz, and a suspect in the death of his wife in Vista Alegre. Never captured, and remains one of the country's Top 10 fugitives. SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS: None to my knowledge SAINT LUCIA: None to my knowledge SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Veron Primus (2006-2015; 2+ victims) Violent criminal and rapist currenty charged with two murders: the 2006 strangulation of a Brooklyn, NY teen and the 2015 stabbing death of a real estate agent in Arnos Vale. The long gap between his crimes leads me to believe he could possibly have more victims, either in New York or Vermont, where he was active, but I could be wrong. Awaiting murder trial in St. Vincent. TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: None to my knowledge
submitted by HauntedSpy to serialkillers [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 21:38 Sabur1991 English-speaking Survivor seasons Rankdown in our Russian community 2020 (we do it once in three or four years) - Places 12-9.

This summer we're conducting all English-speaking Survivor seasons ranking in our Russian community. I would like to share the results with you each time after we eliminate four or five seasons.
The rankdown includes 50 seasons: 40 U.S. seasons, 5 Australian Seasons (starting with AUS 2016), 3 South Africa seasons (Staring with Champions) and 2 New Zealand seasons.
All 50 seasons have been divided into five random groups of ten. On the first day, we conducted the poll for the worst season from each group, and on the second day we chose the very worst season out of this bottom five. Then, on the third day, we conducted the poll ONLY in the group the eliminated season came from to determine the next worst season and this season took the place of the 50th placed season in the group of five that are up for elimination. And so on, and so on, i.e. we eliminate one season in each two days.
PREVIOUS PLACEMENTS:
50th - Survivor: Redemption Island
49th - Survivor: Thailand
48th - Survivor: One World
47th - Survivor: South Pacific
46th - Survivor New Zealand: Nicaragua
45th - Survivor: Fiji
44th - Survivor: Nicaragua
43th - Survivor: Ghost Island
42th - Survivor: Caramoan
41th - Survivor: Island of the Idols
40th - Survivor: Borneo
39th - Survivor: All Stars
38th - Survivor: Africa
37th - Survivor: Marquesas
36th - Survivor: Guatemala
35th - Survivor: Samoa
34th - Survivor: Vanuatu
33th - Survivor: Worlds Apart
32th - Australian Survivor 2016
31th - Survivor New Zealand: Thailand
30th - Survivor: Panama - Exile Island
29th - Survivor: Heroes vs. Healers vs. Hustlers
28th - Survivor: Edge of Extinction
27th - Australian Survivor: All Stars
26th - Survivor: Game Changers
25th - Survivor South Africa: Philippines
24th - Survivor: Gabon
23th - Survivor: Palau
22th - Survivor: Kaoh Rong
21th - Survivor: Cook Islands
20th - Survivor: Blood vs. Water
19th - Survivor: The Australian Outback
18th - Survivor South Africa: Champions
17th - Survivor: Tocantins
16th - Survivor: Philippines
15th - Survivor: San Juan Del Sur
14th - Survivor South Africa: Island of Secrets
13th - Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders II
During the previous eight days we determined places #12 - #9.
12th place - Survivor U.S. Season 15: China. China is a very decent season with a strong winner, yet something lacks it to get to the Top-10. Maybe it's 16 contestants. Maybe it's Pagonging of Zhan Hu. Maybe it's James and Amada who are both not very well liked in Russian community.
11th place - Survivor U.S. Season 6: The Amazon. Amazon almost made it to the Top-10 (and it made the Top-10 among U.S. seasons as there are two Australian seasons still in the running) because, being the early season, it was totally unpredictable after the merge and saw a lot of game-changing moves and fleeting alliances. If it was filmed in 2010s and had advantages, I guess it would've been guaranteed Top-5. And here... it still had dull premerge, really episodes 2 - 6 were not that fun.
10th place - Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders I. Big cast, big season. Unlike its follower in 2019, it had a decent tribe of contenders gamewise, but unfortunately much weaker challengewise. It was one of the factors that Contenders really could do nothing against Champions mountain. I personally still like this Australian season the most.
9th place - Survivor U.S. Season 7: Pearl Islands. Highest-ranking season out of the first ten, Pearl Islands is great both in dynamics and cast, and had a lot of memorable moments. And great theme which really penetrated into the atmosphere of the season. But... you know, there are people in Russian community who really despise "dead grandmother lie" of JFP, and they didn't want this season to go higher, I guess.
Still in the running (Top-8):
- Survivor: Micronesia
- Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains
- Survivor: Cagayan
- Survivor: Cambodia
- Survivor: Millennials vs. Gen X
- Survvior: David vs. Goliath
- Survivor: Winners at War
- Australian Survivor 2017
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2020.08.23 23:28 Asshole411 Indian doctors blame Bill Gates for a devastating vaccine-strain polio epidemic that paralyzed 496,000 children between 2000 and 2017. In 2017, the Indian Government dialed back Gates' vaccine regimen and evicted Gates and his cronies. Polio paralysis rates then dropped precipitously.

“Vaccines, for Bill Gates, are a strategic philanthropy that feed his many vaccine-related businesses (including Microsoft’s ambition to control a global vac ID enterprise) and give him dictatorial control over global health policy – the spear tip of corporate neo-imperialism
Gates’ obsession with vaccines seems fueled by a messianic conviction that he is ordained to save the world with technology and a god-like willingness to experiment with the lives of lesser humans.
Promising to eradicate Polio with $1.2 billion, Gates took control of India ‘s National Advisory Board (NAB) and mandated 50 polio vaccines (up from 5) to every child before age 5.
Indian doctors blame the Gates campaign for a devastating vaccine-strain polio epidemic that paralyzed 496,000 children between 2000 and 2017.
In 2017, the Indian Government dialed back Gates’ vaccine regimen and evicted Gates and his cronies from the NAB. Polio paralysis rates dropped precipitously.
Evicted? Why not arrested & tried in a Court of Laws for Crime Against Humanity? The following hashtag is trending on social media: #jailBillGates
In 2017, the World Health Organization reluctantly admitted that the global polio explosion is predominantly vaccine strain, meaning it is coming from Gates’ Vaccine Program.
The most frightening epidemics in Congo, the Philippines, and Afghanistan are all linked to Gates’ vaccines. By 2018, ¾ of global polio cases were from Gates’ vaccines.
In 2014, the Gates Foundation funded tests of experimental HPV vaccines, developed by GSK and Merck, on 23,000 young girls in remote Indian provinces.
Approximately 1,200 suffered severe side effects, including autoimmune and fertility disorders.
Seven died. Indian government investigations charged that Gates funded researchers committed pervasive ethical violations: pressuring vulnerable village girls into the trial, bullying parents, forging consent forms, and refusing medical care to the injured girls.
The case is now in the country’s Supreme Court.
In 2010, the Gates Foundation funded a trial of a GSK’s experimental malaria vaccine, killing 151 African infants and causing serious adverse effects including paralysis, seizure, and febrile convulsions to 1,048 of the 5,049 children.
During Gates 2002 MenAfriVac Campaign in Sub-Saharan Africa, Gates operatives forcibly vaccinated thousands of African children against meningitis.
Between 50-500 children developed paralysis. South African newspapers complained, “We are guinea pigs for drug makers.” Nelson Mandela’s former Senior Economist, Professor Patrick Bond, describes Gates’ philanthropic practises as “ruthless” and immoral”.
In 2010, Gates committed $ 10 billion to the WHO promising to reduce population, in part, through new vaccines. A month later Gates told a Ted Talk that new vaccines “could reduce population”.
In 2014, Kenya’s Catholic Doctors Association accused the WHO of chemically sterilizing millions of unwilling Kenyan women with a phoney “tetanus” vaccine campaign.
Independent labs found the sterility formula in every vaccine tested. After denying the charges, WHO finally admitted it had been developing the sterility vaccines for over a decade.
Similar accusations came from Tanzania, Nicaragua, Mexico and the Philippines.
A 2017 study (Morgensen et.Al.2017) showed that WHO’s popular DTP is killing more African than the disease it pretends to prevent. Vaccinated girls suffered 10x the death rate of unvaccinated children.
https://www.sgtreport.com/2020/04/bill-gates-vaccine-crime-record-496000-paralyzed-children-in-india-and-more/
The scientific paper. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30111741/
submitted by Asshole411 to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.08.22 00:23 Var1etyJ0nes Rey Rivera: Note, Delray Beach, Etc

For the last several years, I’ve been researching money laundering & financial crimes as a (bizarre) hobby. I very recently watched the Netflix Unsolved Mysteries episode on Rey Rivera and find the case fascinating. I’m sure most of what I am about to write has already been covered by the swaths of amazing online research that is out there, but I figured I would still share a few thoughts in case an item or two can be of help to the cause/case. Breaking it up into 4 sections: i) Sweep It Under The Rug; ii) The Mentor & Daytona Beach Connections; iii) The Note; iv) Miscellaneous.
I) SWEEP IT UNDER THE RUG
I can’t speak to whether Agora was directly responsible for Rey’s death, but I can say pretty confidently that if his death were either directly or indirectly related to the work he did for Agora, then there would be substantial pressure on the Baltimore police department to sweep this case under the proverbial rug.
Why would the Baltimore PD have pressure on it?
  1. During the early/mid 2000’s, the FBI & CIA were all over the “pump & dump”-boiler-room and money laundering schemes in the OTC/penny-stock universe, as it was fertile ground for both domestic and foreign organized crime. A good late 90’s example of domestic and foreign organized crime rings coordinating together in the space is Felix Sater’s White Rock case, in which the Genovese, Bonnano, Gambino, Colombo & Russian OC families essentially formed a joint venture to defraud investors https://www.sec.gov/news/testimony/ts142000.htm). Agora’s network of investment & marketing-related businesses, at a minimum, intersected with this murky universe.
  2. Agora’s operations were multi-national.
  3. Agora was a large Baltimore employer operating within 50 miles of FBI & CIA headquarters.
  4. Certain key leadership (e.g. PS, His Mentor) at Agora were under or previously had been under indictment by the SEC.
Given 1-4, it’s almost certain that Agora either a) was under monitosurveillance by or serving as informant to an intelligence agency; b) had high-level government connections that were protecting them and allowing them to operate & profit in the space (possibly as informant); or c) both.
I highlight this because, regardless of whether it’s A, B or C, if Rivera’s death were even tangentially related to Agora (e.g. suicide due to business guilt), then there would be very influential forces within the government and/or intelligence agencies that would prefer there be as little investigation as possible into what caused his death. Some might discount this as conspiracy theory. I would argue that those who do are being naive and/or have not researched this universe sufficiently.

II) THE MENTOR & THE DAYTONA BEACH CONNECTIONS
What I find most surprising about this case is that MF did not garner more attention by investigators. There may be a very good reason for this, but the following jumped out to me when researching:

III) THE NOTE
It feels cryptic to me, but not in the sense of letter X = letter Y.
He’s paranoid, so he doesn’t want to state directly what is causing the paranoia.
He’s creative, so he chooses to write a cryptic short story that intertwines non-fiction (ie important hints) with fiction (ie the altered voice; fictitious Freemasons council; and “Game” theme).
I don’t think there’s a need to find direct connections between every item on his lists. Again, he’s paranoid, so he doesn’t want the message of each list to be overt. Instead, each list has an overarching theme, and then it is populated with both names/items that are connected to his paranoia (ie hints), as well as names/items that are not connected to his paranoia (ie decoys/masks).
My wild-guess, summarized interpretation:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1CUynVxK37ReWqJ2r3jyue0hUMh36GfiRAzYXG-Q8IE8/edit#

IV) MISCELLANEOUS
A couple of random (most likely coincidental) additional items that I’ve come across while researching:
The 1988 SEC Complaint against Goldcor, Inc lists Richard D. Brown, Carl W. Martin, and Nitram Corp. as engaged in the distribution of unregistered Goldcor common stock. Nitram Corp is referenced as Martin’s family holding corp.. Alex Rovt coincidentally was associated with multiple Nitram-named entities in Florida (ie Nitram Ownership, Inc., Nitram, Inc., Nitram Chemicals, Inc.). Rovt sold his fertilizer company to Dmytro Firtash and co-authored the Rovt-Weldon (who was investigated by DOJ/FBI for his ties to Firtash’s former partner - Igor Makarov) Ukraine peace plan of Michael Cohen-Felix Sater-Michael Flynn fame.
u/n30_b1ackb0x posted an interesting theory about how Rey’s incorrect reference to Shyamalan being the director of The Others was an intentional mistake - The Others was directed by Alejandro Amenabar who directed the movie “Agora.” The timing seems is a little off since Agora did not come out until 3 years after Rey’s death, but it is a really crazy coincidence and conceivable that WB/MF were somehow involved in the very early stages of the financing. In checking out the IMDB page of Agora, I noticed that one of the producers is the Government of Malta. Government of Malta is listed as a producer on only 10 movies. One of these other movies, and the one immediately preceding Agora chronologically, is The Da Vinci Code.
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2020.08.17 09:48 Anarcho_Humanist [Anarchists/libsocs only] What can we learn from the history of anarchist revolutions?

So, I wouldn't call these anarchist revolutions, but they are all definitely ones anarchists should look into. These are all the cases from the 20th and 21st centuries where as far as I know, more than a few thousand people managed to defeat the state and carve out a kind of permanent autonomous zone with some kind direct democracy and abolition of private property for more than a year.
The patterns I've managed to pick up:
Now, this is the part where I get a little more critical of anarchism. I've often heard anarchists blame the failure of these revolutions on Marxist-Leninists or Empires. And while this is perfectly true, it also shouldn't really be surprising, these groups don't want our societies to exist and historically, have been willing to kill us to achieve it. We need to be able to do future revolutions while preparing for these threats. I'll note than in the Free Territory and Spain, the anarchists didn't expect MLs to attack, but in Rojava, they actively anticipated an attack from Turkey, which I believe allowed them to survive an event that would've normally wiped out other anarchist movements.
Also, none of these followed the normal anarchist playbooks. None came from general strikes, prolonged guerilla warfare, terrorism or even dual power structures (apparently it did in Rojava? But I'm still unsure). This only reinforces my views that we all need to learn how to use guns and do first aid, which gives me hope for groups like Redneck Revolt in the USA.
Anyway, what do you think? Are there any other bits of history that you think I should explore? If you disagree, why?
If you're an ML and you plan on commenting something here, why not do it here?
submitted by Anarcho_Humanist to Socialism_101 [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 09:46 Anarcho_Humanist What can we learn from the history of anarchist revolutions?

So, I wouldn't call these anarchist revolutions, but they are all definitely ones anarchists should look into. These are all the cases from the 20th and 21st centuries where as far as I know, more than a few thousand people managed to defeat the state and carve out a kind of permanent autonomous zone with some kind direct democracy and abolition of private property for more than a year.
The patterns I've managed to pick up:
Now, this is the part where I get a little more critical of anarchism. I've often heard anarchists blame the failure of these revolutions on Marxist-Leninists or Empires. And while this is perfectly true, it also shouldn't really be surprising, these groups don't want our societies to exist and historically, have been willing to kill us to achieve it. We need to be able to do future revolutions while preparing for these threats. I'll note than in the Free Territory and Spain, the anarchists didn't expect MLs to attack, but in Rojava, they actively anticipated an attack from Turkey, which I believe allowed them to survive an event that would've normally wiped out other anarchist movements.
Also, none of these followed the normal anarchist playbooks. None came from general strikes, prolonged guerilla warfare, terrorism or even dual power structures (apparently it did in Rojava? But I'm still unsure). This only reinforces my views that we all need to learn how to use guns and do first aid, which gives me hope for groups like Redneck Revolt in the USA.
Anyway, what do you think? Are there any other bits of history that you think I should explore? If you disagree, why?
submitted by Anarcho_Humanist to Anarchy101 [link] [comments]


2020.08.13 14:48 mirandaandamira Labor Party lead Communique on Nicaragua:

https://edm.parliament.uk/early-day-motion/51965
Tabled 09 July 2018 2017-19 Session
That this House is very concerned by continuing violence in Nicaragua which has claimed the lives of over 300 people, further to on-going protests and unrest which began in April 2018 against alleged state land grabs, now-abandoned reforms to the national social security system proposed by the Government of President Daniel Ortega, and the latter's increasingly authoritarian rule; notes that an Amnesty International report in May 2018 determined that the Government was practicing a shoot to kill policy with protesters, causing an alarming number of deaths; further notes the comments by the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, that the violence and repression seen in Nicaragua since April are products of the systematic erosion of human rights over the years, and highlight the overall fragility of institutions and the rule of law; urges all sides, including Nicaraguan Government security forces, to respect the right to peaceful protest and commit to a non-violent resolution of the political crisis; and calls on the Government to raise these matters with its Nicaraguan counterparts as a matter of urgency, including the need to investigate all deaths in an independent manner and prosecute the alleged perpetrators, to support mediation efforts, and to consider further action if the violence continues.
submitted by mirandaandamira to frombelownicaragua [link] [comments]


2020.08.12 16:39 PlatinumRaptor95 List of all major tropical cyclones that have made landfall in the Northern Hemisphere from 2010 to 2019

Hello TropicalWeather. Recently I was wondering where "major" tropical cyclones usually make landfall so I decided to do some research and tabulate the info. I was only able to do tropical cyclones from the year 2010 until 2019 due to time constraints though.
I decided to use the National Hurricane Center's definition of a "major hurricane" which is a Category 3+ tropical cyclone or wind speeds greater than or equal to 111 mph / 178 km/h. Even though most basins don't use the "1-minute sustained wind speed" the NHC uses, the estimated 1-minute sustained wind speed for other storms is easily accessible online so I used that.
I only counted tropical cyclones that were Category 3 or above during landfall. This means that a cyclone which was a Category 5 in the middle of the ocean but was a Category 1 when it made landfall is not counted.
I also counted multiple landfalls as long as the tropical cyclone is still equal to or above Category 3 strength, and the succeeding landfall is a different country or sovereign state from the previous one.
Note: The Category column in the tables below refer to the strength of the cyclone at the time of landfall. This is the reason why Hurricane Patricia (2015) is only listed as a Category 4 despite having the record for the tropical cyclone with the highest wind speed.
North Atlantic Basin
Year Name Category Landfall
2010 Karl 3 Mexico
2011 Irene 3 The Bahamas
2012 Sandy 3 Cuba
2015 Joaquin 3 The Bahamas
2016 Matthew 4 Haiti
4 Cuba
4 The Bahamas
Otto 3 Nicaragua
2017 Harvey 4 USA
Irma 5 Barbuda
5 Sint Maarten
5 British Virgin Islands
4 The Bahamas
5 Cuba
4 USA
Maria 5 Dominica
4 Puerto Rico
2018 Michael 5 USA
2019 Dorian 5 The Bahamas
Northeastern Pacific Basin
Year Name Category Landfall
2014 Odile 3 Mexico
2015 Patricia 4 Mexico
2018 Willa 3 Mexico
North Indian Basin
Year Name Category Landfall
2010 Phet 3 Oman
Giri 4 Myanmar
2013 Phailin 4 India
2014 Hudhud 4 India
2015 Megh 3 Yemen
2018 Mekunu 3 Oman
Titli 3 India
2019 Fani 4 India
Northwestern Pacific Basin
Year Name Category Landfall
2010 Fanapi 3 Taiwan
Megi 5 Philippines
2011 Nanmadol 4 Philippines
Nalgae 4 Philippines
2012 Vicente 4 China
Tembin 3 Taiwan
Bolaven 3 Ryukyu Islands
Bopha 5 Philippines
2013 Utor 4 Philippines
Usagi 3 China
Nari 3 Philippines
Haiyan 5 Philippines
2014 Rammasun 4 Philippines
5 China
Hagupit 3 Philippines
2015 Noul* 5 Philippines
Soudelor 5 Mariana Islands
3 Taiwan
Goni 3 Japan
Dujuan 4 Taiwan
Mujigae 4 China
Koppu 4 Philippines
Melor 4 Philippines
2016 Nepartak 4 Taiwan
Meranti 5 Philippines
Malakas 3 Japan
Megi 4 Taiwan
Sarika 4 Philippines
Haima 4 Philippines
Nock-ten 4 Philippines
2017 Hato 3 China
2018 Jebi 3 Japan
Mangkhut 5 Philippines
Yutu 5 Mariana Islands
2019 Lingling 4 Ryukyu Islands
Hagibis 5 Mariana Islands
Kammuri 4 Philippines
*JTWC and JMA did not acknowledge Typhoon Noul's landfall but PAGASA did.
Some interesting things that I noticed:
- The Northeastern Pacific Basin, despite being the second most active basin, has the least number of major tropical cyclones that made landfall. This is because the direction of most of the tropical cyclones that form here is away from the mainland.
- Hurricane Irma (2017) made landfall in six different countries which is the highest among all the tropical cyclones in the list.
- The Northwestern Pacific Basin has the most number of major tropical cyclones landfalls with 35. This is more than thrice than the next basin which is the North Atlantic Basin with 11 total tropical cyclones
- The Philippines is the country with the most major tropical cyclone landfalls with 18. This is three times more than the next country which is Taiwan with 6.
Thanks for reading my post! And if I have any error with my post, please tell me and I'll fix it asap.
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2020.08.10 17:08 Superfan234 Electoral Crisis in Bolivia: The Complete story

In a previous post, I answered the most commons questions and misconceptions about the Conflict in Bolivia
With this post my objective is much more ambitious: To explain once and for all , the Bolivian Crisis to Neoliberal
It is a massive task, for sure. But I think the final work lives up to the expectations
Of course, massive thanks to u/thebolivianguy. He helped me a ton with details I was honestly not aware of, give his inside thoughts from inside the country, and brought almost all the main News Sources you will find in this post. Kudos to him for the support!
What role did the OAS have? Was it really the United States the ones who ousted Evo Morales? Was there really Electoral manipulation? How the Opposition took over the country?
Let's find out ;)

The Original Sin: The Controversial Plebiscite of 2016

If I need to give a specific date to understand the turmoil events of 2019, without a doubt we must go back to 2016, to the Plebicite of February 21. In this Plebiscite, Evo Morales Aima called on the Bolivian population to vote for a constitutional reform allowing him to be elected for the 2020-2025 presidential term. By a tight margin (51% against re-eleccion vs 49% in favor) Bolivians decided to prevent another term for Evo Morales in 2019 [*]
Evo Morales, after 13 years of thunderous electoral victories, had to accept defeat. Until then, he enjoyed unparalleled popularity in Bolivia, keeping the country with a stable economy [*] and together with his Party (MAS) he controlled all the powers of the State. It took him a few days, but reluctantly, he ends up accepting his loss
However, a few months later, Morales would appeal to the Constitutional Court for a second opinion. In 2017, in a highly controversial ruling, the Court considered the prohibition of indefinite re-election, limited the Humans Rights of the President. As a result, Evo could stand for re-election as many times as he wished to[*]
The ruling was naturally strongly criticized by the opposition. And, in hindsight , it became the biggest political mistake Evo Morales has ever made

The Consequences of Indefinite Re-Election

For more than a decade, Evo enjoyed great popularity and appreciation by varied sectors of the population. Not only the "common people", but also Bolivian businessmen, who viewed with good eyes the stability and economic growth Bolivia had experienced, something extremely rare in that country. These times of prosperity had reduced the Opposition to small unpopular group, with multitude of internal conflicts
But extremely partisan decision of the Constitutional Tribunal allowed Opposition politicians, who shared little to nothing with each other, to sit together and defend themselves against a common enemy. In time, civil communities would join the political efforts, and together, they would be able to unleash protests and demonstrations throughout the country, capitalizing on the political discontent of the Bolivian People
The OAS, on the contrary, would not condemn the decision of the Constitutional Court. On the contrary, the president of the OAS expressly traveled to Bolivia to support the indefinite election of Evo Morales. [*]. For those who have heard of the Bolivian Crisis in mass media this may sound unusual, but in fact there is a quite convincing explanation. However, let's not beat around this bush just yet
I am going to be extremely specific: There are 3 central points crucial to understand the Bolivian crisis (I'm going to list them because we will constantly return to them)
Evo's wishes for indefinite re-election resulted in three critical problems
  • 1) Political Union of the Opposition: Parties and Civil Communities that shared little or nothing with each other, put aside their political differences in order to defeat Evo
  • 2) General mistrust of the People: The Rebirth of the Dictatorships of Venezuela (~ 2017) and Nicaragua (~ 2018), became a gloomy omen for Bolivians. Both regimes were consolidated through electoral farces. So the proper tally of the votes became absolutely crucial
  • 3) Antagonism with Latin America: A big majority of LATAM Leaders, for the most part, was seeking a change of government in Venezuela at any cost. Bolivia's fierce support to Venezuela, could be a fundamental obstacle to overthrowing Maduro
The combination of these 3 factors, added to the generalized perception of Evo Morales as a Corrupt Politician, was the explosive mixture that led to the general fear of electoral manipulation in Bolivia
The massive protests, and this is important to remember, were not to support a particular opposition candidate. They were against the (justified) fear that Evo installed in the Bolivian population about falling into a Crisis similar to the one Venezuela was living

Days before the Election

By early October 2019, the political tension could be feel in the air. Three years of attempts to avoid Evo's re-election had failed legally, but electorally, they had succeeded in an unprecedented way Since 2005, Morales had won by landslides all the presidential elections he had participated. In 2005, he had beaten Jorge Quiroga 54% vs 29%. In 2009 he beat Manfred Reyes 64% vs 27%, in 2014 he beat Samuel Doria 61% vs 24. Evo's popularity, in principle, was virtually unbeatable
But a partial defeat in the municipal elections of 2015[*] and mainly his defeat in the 2016 Plebiscite, raised doubts about his ability to win a new presidential elections
Problems were nothing to shrug off. Morales presented in 2019 the same Political Project he had for over 13 years: a Conservative-Social Democracy with an indigenous mix. Against him, Carlos Mesa, his main political rival, presented an almost identical project, with the additional “plus” of not having 13 years of corruption scandals and worn-out Populism accompanying Evo
Citizens who felt comfortable with Evo's Bolivarian model could feel confident Mesa have the vision to continue the years of prosperity, and at the same time, detoxify the institutions of the State from rampant corruption. It was, by all accounts, a great opportunity for political change in the country
As the Election approached, the opinion polls became increasingly grim for Evo. He was projected to reach only 37% of the vote in the First Round, far from the ~ 60% he achieved in the 2014 elections[*]
To top it off, Chi Hyun and Oscar Ortiz (the other two strong opposition candidates) appear, in the event of a Ballot, closer to supporting Carlos Mesa than Evo. Capturing those votes in the Second round, would be a very complex task
Although the situation might look bleak for the Government there was, in fact, a chance to win. In Bolivia, the candidate who obtains more than 40% of the votes (and exceeds the second candidate by 10%) can be elected as winner in the First Round
This way, Evo marginally win in the First round, thus avoiding a second Ballot. Of course, the fact Evo could win by a margin of ~ 1%, only increased the social pressure on the correct tall of votes The Opposition Politicians and Media also echoed this concern, and months before the elections, they were already calling for citizens to protect the results, accusing the Government of fabricating an electoral fraud [*][*][*]

Elections Day

The day everyone was waiting for finally arrived. At the Sunday of October 20, citizens of the 9 Departments of Bolivia were called to vote at the polls, without any mayor complications at first
After a relatively quiet morning, Bolivians prepared for the results. In Bolivia, the electoral court supervises three different types of counting
  • Boca de Urna(*): quite unaccurate, but reflects the immediate moments after the vote
  • Quick Count (TREP): which allows to know approximate results in a few hours [*]
  • Final Count: official results, which usually take a couple of days
It was clear that the winner would be defined by mere decimals. And possibly, the last votes would come from rural areas, where Evo remained as great favorite, but little polls to clarity for how much At night, Bolivians were nervously waiting for the final results of the count. In mere minutes, they would know the results of 4 years of political conflict. And suddenly, without any prior notice, the Electoral Tribunal stops the vote count
The opposition's alarms quickly went off, and fiercely, they asked the electoral court an explanation for the delay
The Electoral Tribunal, without giving it much importance to it, give vague and really confusing reasons to excuse itself[*]. Although at the beginning it was attributed (informally) to technical problems, the Electoral Tribunal ended up reporting that stopping the quick count was "planned in advance" [*] and that the final results would eventually be known
If this process was really planned or not, the doubt was enough to light the fuse of the discontent and mistrust the entire country was experiencing. Quickly, citizens began to protest at the headquarters of the Electoral Tribunal [*] , demanding the vote counting be resumed
The OAS, the European Union and the United States expressed their concern about the suspension of the count, and sent statements requesting explanations from the government[*]

Days after the election

On Monday October 21, the Electoral Tribunal resumed the vote counting. To the discontent of the Opposition (and the joy of the Government), the final toll was clear: Morales had won in the first round, and MAS maintained control of both the Upper House and the Lower House of the Congress
This only infuriated the Opposition population, who saw the change in trend and Government secrecy as a clear attempt to manipulate the data. Protests began in front of the country's Electoral Tribunal [*]
In Potosi, the outrage became evident, once the Electoral Tribunal, which initially gave the victory by exit to Mesa by 69%, had reduced this percentage to 34% in the final count[*]
That day, a viral video began to circulate on the Internet. In the footage, you can see the Union Leader Marco Pumari forcing his entry into a warehouse, where hundreds of ballots were (secretly) stored. I will transcribe Pumari's impressions:
Supposedly a few blocks from here, the Electoral Tribunal, already began scrutinizing. They are already counting our votes. What are they counting! If the votes of the Potosinos are Here! What are the authorities counting there?
If this is what they are doing in the Capital of Potosi... imagine what they are doing in Rural Areas! That’s why Evo Morales has indicated us to "wait for the vote of the rural areas." He even thanked the Potosinos for our votes! To whom Evo should thank, it is those corrupt members of the Electoral Tribunal, who are going against their own Population!
This is unacceptable. It's a crime! Today the police tried to prevent us from entering this compound. The police, protecting these corrupts! No Notary wants to come here and to take note of the situation. Not a single one! We will go to file a complaint in Justice Court. But who knows if they will listen to us, since Justice is also in the hands of the Government!
I now I ask to you: What is left for us to do, as The People?
The video broadcast by Marco Pumari enraged the population of Potosí, who ended it up setting on fire the Electoral Tribunal. But this was just one of many videos that, through social networks, questioned the actions of the Government and the Electoral Tribunal in counting the votes
When night came, after several hours of unanswered protests, the violence began to grow. The headquarters of the Electoral Courts of Sucre was also burned in retaliation. [*]. Protests in favor and against Morales begin to occur throughout the country
Luis Fernando Camacho, a businessman and social leader from the Bolivian East side, would call for an indefinite strike from Santa Cruz[*], one of the most important cities in Bolivia, jeopardizing the social and economic sustainability of the government
The Catholic Church would also show its concern, warning signs of fraud in the presidential election [*]
Meanwhile, a group of radical Indigenous women, known as The Red Ponchos, threatened the opposition with taking up arms to defend Evo and his Government [*] The same threats were made by the Coca Leaf Leaders, who historically had shown firm support for the president
At the beginning of November, the die was cast. A major conflict was approaching, and both sides anticipated that bloodshed was inevitable. It is in these moments of maximum tension, the OAS makes it’s appearance

The OAS Intervention

The OAS, is the International Community who brings together all the Latin American countries. It’s also the faithful reflection of the apathy Hispanic countries profess to international conflicts.
The OAS, in theory, could possess great political powers on the American Continent, perhaps even Worldwide relevance. However, the prevailing indifference in Latin America (even present in great powers like Brazil and Mexico) has limited OAS to become the great defender of the Status quo in the Region. Moral or immoral? Truth is, Hispanic countries lack interest in the internal politics of their neighbors, and rarely intervene in them regardless of the seriousness of the matter at hand
Morales, of course, already knew this. He himself had participated in OAS for 13 years, and he knew they could take months to obtain a final report and, most likely, they were only going to limit themselves to sustaining the Status Quo
Opposition leaders were also aware of this, so they did everything it was possible to de-legitimize the statistical value of the OAS. They knew that the pacifist position of the American countries in favor of Morales would de-legitimize the protests, and they might stop the Protest completely Therefore, if they wanted to take down Evo, they had to act as soon as possible, before the call for calm from the OAS demoralized the protesters

The Bolivian Revolution

The conflict was on. Evo Morales was plan was to ask the population to calm down, and wait for OAS Report on the Elections. The opposition sought to extend the protests to the rest of the country, and make Evo fall before the OAS calmed down the protests
The Manifestations, of course, did not wait. From the East, Fernando Camacho was leading the businessmen and wealthy class of Santa Cruz, from the West, the Union Leader Marco Pumari, leading the working and indigenous masses of Potosi
It might seem curious that none of the Opposition presidential candidates led the protests. But you must remember that, with their re-election attempts, many civil groups had previously organized in the event of a Fraud situation. Although these communities came from very disparate political groups, the strong opposition to Evo was enough to keep them united as one
These civil groups proved to have more support than the opposition parties themselves, and turned out to be much more difficult for the Government to contain
One of the great advantages of these communities was they were not associated (yet) with the corruption that characterized Bolivian politics, and their only defined political program was to oust Evo. This would make their most popular representatives, Camacho and Pumari, more relatable and easy-to-follow leaders. For his part, Evo Morales resorted to two main methods to win: A) To exercise repression with his shock trops and B) A lot of Whining
On the one hand, Evo could use his shock forces to violently attack the opposition, with not much International repercussions. This attacks reach their peak at infamous Siege to Santa Cruz [*]. On the other hand, Evo sought to give the appearance of a coup before the international community, and promoted the image “USA is attacking Bolivia”

Electoral manipulation is confirmed

On November 8, Ethical Hacking, the auditing company hired by the Electoral Tribunal itself to follow the election process, Delivers their final report[*]. This report, was nothing short of devastating for the Government
They revealed that, at 7:30 p.m. on Election Day, a large amount of data began to be received from an Unknown Server, which caused constant errors in the electoral app of the TREP. Looking for explanations, Ethical Hacking goes to the Members of the Committee, who admited it was them who accessed the electoral system, but only out of "curiosity" to see the Data (Let's remember, it was approximately at this time, the Electoral Tribunal suddenly stopped publishing vote counts)
But this turned out to be just the tip of the Iceberg. Over the next five days, Ethical Hacking recorded not one or two, but 12 breaches of the electoral system's protocol. The reason for breaking the protocols were quite varied, but the final consequences were the same: The Electoral Acts could have been modified at will by the Members of the Electoral Tribunal, since there was no supervision by an external entity at those times
The reaction in Bolivia did not wait. The fact the very company hired by the Government blamed the Electoral Tribunal for invalidating the results, would be funny, if it wasn't so tragic
That same day, tired of being used against the protesting population, police forces in Cochamaba, Sucre and Santa Cruz mutinied against the Government[*]A few days later, they were followed by police forces from La Paz
The protesters, now with the protection of the local police, grew to Dantesque levels. They finally had enough numbers and support to take over the country

The betrayal of the OAS

Evo Morales was cornered. His popular support was both surppassed in numbers and organization by opposition forces. The national police were unwilling to repress the protesters, and His personal strike groups didn't have the weapons nor the planning to fight the dissident population over the country
In a desperate attempt to regain control of Bolivia, Morales fired the members of the Electoral Tribunal, blaming them for the errors in the process, and promised to organize new a electoral process [*]However, this act of good faith ended it up having no value, because on November 10, against all expectations, the OAS publishes an "executive report" confirming the final Electoral tall had mayor issues, probably some sort of manipulation, effectively invalidating the results. They suggested it would be better make the whole elections again
The response of Bolivian politics was one of total disbelief. Not only the OAS had advanced it's reports against the Government's desires[*], it also openly ruled against Evo, using a language that practically encouraged the dissident to continue their Protest
It was perhaps at that moment that Evo Morales finally understood he was betrayed. His fervent support for a favorable OAS ruling had become a double-edged sword. A weapon the opposition would undoubtedly use against him
At the same time, Senior Officials of the Bolivian Army met in Secret to decide what they could do to regain control of the country. From what we now known, High Officers were concerned of the increasing anarchy the country was facing, and feared at this rate, it would be impossible to prevent bloodshed between opposite factions[*]Therefore, Williams Kaliman, the commander-in-chief of the Bolivian Armed Forces, asked the president to resign, in order to regain political stability in the country.
Evo Morales, after 13 years of government and almost 20 days of fierce struggle, was forced to present his resignation as President. Bolivian Protesters, had won
submitted by Superfan234 to neoliberal [link] [comments]


2020.08.09 21:30 Superfan234 bolivia testo 3

In a previous post, I answered the most commons questions and misconceptions about the Conflict in Bolivia
With this post my objective is much more ambitious: To explain once and for all , the Bolivian Crisis to Neoliberal
It is a massive task, for sure. But I think the final work lives up to the expectations
Of course, massive thanks to u/thebolivianguy. He helped me a ton with details I was honestly not aware of, give his inside thoughts from inside the country, and brought almost all the main News Sources you will find in this post. Kudos to him for the support!
What role did the OAS have? Was it really the United States the ones who ousted Evo Morales? Was there really Electoral manipulation? How the Opposition took over the country?
Let's find out ;)

The Original Sin: The Controversial Plebiscite of 2016

If I need to give a specific date to understand the turmoil events of 2019, without a doubt we must go back to 2016, to the Plebicite of February 21. In this Plebiscite, Evo Morales Aima called on the Bolivian population to vote for a constitutional reform allowing him to be elected for the 2020-2025 presidential term. By a tight margin (51% against re-eleccion vs 49% in favor) Bolivians decided to prevent another term for Evo Morales in 2019 [*]
Evo Morales, after 13 years of thunderous electoral victories, had to accept defeat. Until then, he enjoyed unparalleled popularity in Bolivia, keeping the country with a stable economy [*] and together with his Party (MAS) he controlled all the powers of the State. It took him a few days, but reluctantly, he ends up accepting his loss
However, a few months later, Morales would appeal to the Constitutional Court for a second opinion. In 2017, in a highly controversial ruling, the Court considered the prohibition of indefinite re-election, limited the Humans Rights of the President. As a result, Evo could stand for re-election as many times as he wished to[*]
The ruling was naturally strongly criticized by the opposition. And, in hindsight , it became the biggest political mistake Evo Morales has ever made

The Consequences of Indefinite Re-Election

For more than a decade, Evo enjoyed great popularity and appreciation by varied sectors of the population. Not only the "common people", but also Bolivian businessmen, who viewed with good eyes the stability and economic growth Bolivia had experienced, something extremely rare in that country. These times of prosperity had reduced the Opposition to small unpopular group, with multitude of internal conflicts
But extremely partisan decision of the Constitutional Tribunal allowed Opposition politicians, who shared little to nothing with each other, to sit together and defend themselves against a common enemy. In time, civil communities would join the political efforts, and together, they would be able to unleash protests and demonstrations throughout the country, capitalizing on the political discontent of the Bolivian People
The OAS, on the contrary, would not condemn the decision of the Constitutional Court. On the contrary, the president of the OAS expressly traveled to Bolivia to support the indefinite election of Evo Morales. [*]. For those who have heard of the Bolivian Crisis in mass media this may sound unusual, but in fact there is a quite convincing explanation. However, let's not beat around this bush just yet
I am going to be extremely specific: There are 3 central points crucial to understand the Bolivian crisis (I'm going to list them because we will constantly return to them)
Evo's wishes for indefinite re-election resulted in three critical problems
  • 1) Political Union of the Opposition: Parties and Civil Communities that shared little or nothing with each other, put aside their political differences in order to defeat Evo
  • 2) General mistrust of the People: The Rebirth of the Dictatorships of Venezuela (~ 2017) and Nicaragua (~ 2018), became a gloomy omen for Bolivians. Both regimes were consolidated through electoral farces. So the proper tally of the votes became absolutely crucial
  • 3) Antagonism with Latin America: A big majority of LATAM Leaders, for the most part, was seeking a change of government in Venezuela at any cost. Bolivia's fierce support to Venezuela, could be a fundamental obstacle to overthrowing Maduro
The combination of these 3 factors, added to the generalized perception of Evo Morales as a Corrupt Politician, was the explosive mixture that led to the general fear of electoral manipulation in Bolivia
The massive protests, and this is important to remember, were not to support a particular opposition candidate. They were against the (justified) fear that Evo installed in the Bolivian population about falling into a Crisis similar to the one Venezuela was living

Days before the Election

By early October 2019, the political tension could be feel in the air. Three years of attempts to avoid Evo's re-election had failed legally, but electorally, they had succeeded in an unprecedented way Since 2005, Morales had won by landslides all the presidential elections he had participated. In 2005, he had beaten Jorge Quiroga 54% vs 29%. In 2009 he beat Manfred Reyes 64% vs 27%, in 2014 he beat Samuel Doria 61% vs 24. Evo's popularity, in principle, was virtually unbeatable
But a partial defeat in the municipal elections of 2015[*] and mainly his defeat in the 2016 Plebiscite, raised doubts about his ability to win a new presidential elections
Problems were nothing to shrug off. Morales presented in 2019 the same Political Project he had for over 13 years: a Conservative-Social Democracy with an indigenous mix. Against him, Carlos Mesa, his main political rival, presented an almost identical project, with the additional “plus” of not having 13 years of corruption scandals and worn-out Populism accompanying Evo
Citizens who felt comfortable with Evo's Bolivarian model could feel confident Mesa have the vision to continue the years of prosperity, and at the same time, detoxify the institutions of the State from rampant corruption. It was, by all accounts, a great opportunity for political change in the country
As the Election approached, the opinion polls became increasingly grim for Evo. He was projected to reach only 37% of the vote in the First Round, far from the ~ 60% he achieved in the 2014 elections[*]
To top it off, Chi Hyun and Oscar Ortiz (the other two strong opposition candidates) appear, in the event of a Ballot, closer to supporting Carlos Mesa than Evo. Capturing those votes in the Second round, would be a very complex task
Although the situation might look bleak for the Government there was, in fact, a chance to win. In Bolivia, the candidate who obtains more than 40% of the votes (and exceeds the second candidate by 10%) can be elected as winner in the First Round
This way, Evo marginally win in the First round, thus avoiding a second Ballot. Of course, the fact Evo could win by a margin of ~ 1%, only increased the social pressure on the correct tall of votes The Opposition Politicians and Media also echoed this concern, and months before the elections, they were already calling for citizens to protect the results, accusing the Government of fabricating an electoral fraud [*][*][*]

Elections Day

The day everyone was waiting for finally arrived. At the Sunday of October 20, citizens of the 9 Departments of Bolivia were called to vote at the polls, without any mayor complications at first
After a relatively quiet morning, Bolivians prepared for the results. In Bolivia, the electoral court supervises three different types of counting
  • Boca de Urna(*): quite unaccurate, but reflects the immediate moments after the vote
  • Quick Count (TREP): which allows to know approximate results in a few hours [*]
  • Final Count: official results, which usually take a couple of days
It was clear that the winner would be defined by mere decimals. And possibly, the last votes would come from rural areas, where Evo remained as great favorite, but little polls to clarity for how much At night, Bolivians were nervously waiting for the final results of the count. In mere minutes, they would know the results of 4 years of political conflict. And suddenly, without any prior notice, the Electoral Tribunal stops the vote count
The opposition's alarms quickly went off, and fiercely, they asked the electoral court an explanation for the delay
The Electoral Tribunal, without giving it much importance to it, give vague and really confusing reasons to excuse itself[*]. Although at the beginning it was attributed (informally) to technical problems, the Electoral Tribunal ended up reporting that stopping the quick count was "planned in advance" [*] and that the final results would eventually be known
If this process was really planned or not, the doubt was enough to light the fuse of the discontent and mistrust the entire country was experiencing. Quickly, citizens began to protest at the headquarters of the Electoral Tribunal [*] , demanding the vote counting be resumed
The OAS, the European Union and the United States expressed their concern about the suspension of the count, and sent statements requesting explanations from the government[*]

Days after the election

On Monday October 21, the Electoral Tribunal resumed the vote counting. To the discontent of the Opposition (and the joy of the Government), the final toll was clear: Morales had won in the first round, and MAS maintained control of both the Upper House and the Lower House of the Congress
This only infuriated the Opposition population, who saw the change in trend and Government secrecy as a clear attempt to manipulate the data. Protests began in front of the country's Electoral Tribunal [*]
In Potosi, the outrage became evident, once the Electoral Tribunal, which initially gave the victory by exit to Mesa by 69%, had reduced this percentage to 34% in the final count[*]
That day, a viral video began to circulate on the Internet. In the footage, you can see the Union Leader Marco Pumari forcing his entry into a warehouse, where hundreds of ballots were (secretly) stored. I will transcribe Pumari's impressions:
Supposedly a few blocks from here, the Electoral Tribunal, already began scrutinizing. They are already counting our votes. What are they counting! If the votes of the Potosinos are Here! What are the authorities counting there?
If this is what they are doing in the Capital of Potosi... imagine what they are doing in Rural Areas! That’s why Evo Morales has indicated us to "wait for the vote of the rural areas." He even thanked the Potosinos for our votes! To whom Evo should thank, it is those corrupt members of the Electoral Tribunal, who are going against their own Population!
This is unacceptable. It's a crime! Today the police tried to prevent us from entering this compound. The police, protecting these corrupts! No Notary wants to come here and to take note of the situation. Not a single one! We will go to file a complaint in Justice Court. But who knows if they will listen to us, since Justice is also in the hands of the Government!
I now I ask to you: What is left for us to do, as The People?
The video broadcast by Marco Pumari enraged the population of Potosí, who ended it up setting on fire the Electoral Tribunal. But this was just one of many videos that, through social networks, questioned the actions of the Government and the Electoral Tribunal in counting the votes
When night came, after several hours of unanswered protests, the violence began to grow. The headquarters of the Electoral Courts of Sucre was also burned in retaliation. [*]. Protests in favor and against Morales begin to occur throughout the country
Luis Fernando Camacho, a businessman and social leader from the Bolivian East side, would call for an indefinite strike from Santa Cruz[*], one of the most important cities in Bolivia, jeopardizing the social and economic sustainability of the government
The Catholic Church would also show its concern, warning signs of fraud in the presidential election [*]
Meanwhile, a group of radical Indigenous women, known as The Red Ponchos, threatened the opposition with taking up arms to defend Evo and his Government [*] The same threats were made by the Coca Leaf Leaders, who historically had shown firm support for the president
At the beginning of November, the die was cast. A major conflict was approaching, and both sides anticipated that bloodshed was inevitable. It is in these moments of maximum tension, the OAS makes it’s appearance

The OAS Intervention

The OAS, is the International Community who brings together all the Latin American countries. It’s also the faithful reflection of the apathy Hispanic countries profess to international conflicts.
The OAS, in theory, could possess great political powers on the American Continent, perhaps even Worldwide relevance. However, the prevailing indifference in Latin America (even present in great powers like Brazil and Mexico) has limited OAS to become the great defender of the Status quo in the Region. Moral or immoral? Truth is, Hispanic countries lack interest in the internal politics of their neighbors, and rarely intervene in them regardless of the seriousness of the matter at hand
Morales, of course, already knew this. He himself had participated in OAS for 13 years, and he knew they could take months to obtain a final report and, most likely, they were only going to limit themselves to sustaining the Status Quo
Opposition leaders were also aware of this, so they did everything it was possible to de-legitimize the statistical value of the OAS. They knew that the pacifist position of the American countries in favor of Morales would de-legitimize the protests, and they might stop the Protest completely Therefore, if they wanted to take down Evo, they had to act as soon as possible, before the call for calm from the OAS demoralized the protesters

The Bolivian Revolution

The conflict was on. Evo Morales was plan was to ask the population to calm down, and wait for OAS Report on the Elections. The opposition sought to extend the protests to the rest of the country, and make Evo fall before the OAS calmed down the protests
The Manifestations, of course, did not wait. From the East, Fernando Camacho was leading the businessmen and wealthy class of Santa Cruz, from the West, the Union Leader Marco Pumari, leading the working and indigenous masses of Potosi
It might seem curious that none of the Opposition presidential candidates led the protests. But you must remember that, with their re-election attempts, many civil groups had previously organized in the event of a Fraud situation. Although these communities came from very disparate political groups, the strong opposition to Evo was enough to keep them united as one
These civil groups proved to have more support than the opposition parties themselves, and turned out to be much more difficult for the Government to contain
One of the great advantages of these communities was they were not associated (yet) with the corruption that characterized Bolivian politics, and their only defined political program was to oust Evo. This would make their most popular representatives, Camacho and Pumari, more relatable and easy-to-follow leaders. For his part, Evo Morales resorted to two main methods to win: A) To exercise repression with his shock trops and B) A lot of Whining
On the one hand, Evo could use his shock forces to violently attack the opposition, with not much International repercussions. This attacks reach their peak at infamous Siege to Santa Cruz [*]. On the other hand, Evo sought to give the appearance of a coup before the international community, and promoted the image “USA is attacking Bolivia”

Electoral manipulation is confirmed

On November 8, Ethical Hacking, the auditing company hired by the Electoral Tribunal itself to follow the election process, Delivers their final report[*]. This report, was nothing short of devastating for the Government
They revealed that, at 7:30 p.m. on Election Day, a large amount of data began to be received from an Unknown Server, which caused constant errors in the electoral app of the TREP. Looking for explanations, Ethical Hacking goes to the Members of the Committee, who admited it was them who accessed the electoral system, but only out of "curiosity" to see the Data (Let's remember, it was approximately at this time, the Electoral Tribunal suddenly stopped publishing vote counts)
But this turned out to be just the tip of the Iceberg. Over the next five days, Ethical Hacking recorded not one or two, but 12 breaches of the electoral system's protocol. The reason for breaking the protocols were quite varied, but the final consequences were the same: The Electoral Acts could have been modified at will by the Members of the Electoral Tribunal, since there was no supervision by an external entity at those times
The reaction in Bolivia did not wait. The fact the very company hired by the Government blamed the Electoral Tribunal for invalidating the results, would be funny, if it wasn't so tragic
That same day, tired of being used against the protesting population, police forces in Cochamaba, Sucre and Santa Cruz mutinied against the Government[*]A few days later, they were followed by police forces from La Paz
The protesters, now with the protection of the local police, grew to Dantesque levels. They finally had enough numbers and support to take over the country

The betrayal of the OAS

Evo Morales was cornered. His popular support was both surppassed in numbers and organization by opposition forces. The national police were unwilling to repress the protesters, and His personal strike groups didn't have the weapons nor the planning to fight the dissident population over the country
In a desperate attempt to regain control of Bolivia, Morales fired the members of the Electoral Tribunal, blaming them for the errors in the process, and promised to organize new a electoral process [*]However, this act of good faith ended it up having no value, because on November 10, against all expectations, the OAS publishes an "executive report" confirming the final Electoral tall had mayor issues, probably some sort of manipulation, effectively invalidating the results. They suggested it would be better make the whole elections again
The response of Bolivian politics was one of total disbelief. Not only the OAS had advanced it's reports against the Government's desires[*], it also openly ruled against Evo, using a language that practically encouraged the dissident to continue their Protest
It was perhaps at that moment that Evo Morales finally understood he was betrayed. His fervent support for a favorable OAS ruling had become a double-edged sword. A weapon the opposition would undoubtedly use against him
At the same time, Senior Officials of the Bolivian Army met in Secret to decide what they could do to regain control of the country. From what we now known, High Officers were concerned of the increasing anarchy the country was facing, and feared at this rate, it would be impossible to prevent bloodshed between opposite factions[*]Therefore, Williams Kaliman, the commander-in-chief of the Bolivian Armed Forces, asked the president to resign, in order to regain political stability in the country.
Evo Morales, after 13 years of government and almost 20 days of fierce struggle, was forced to present his resignation as President. Bolivian Protesters, had won
submitted by Superfan234 to test [link] [comments]


2020.08.09 19:26 evis9Aug F-ree : Django Unchained

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2020.08.09 19:12 blind9Aug St-ream : Django Unchained

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2020.08.08 13:51 SSFFSuperliga Introduction to SSFF Superliga - Official Thread

What exactly is Superliga?
Superliga is an umbrella term used to describe our fantasy football league that has been created on March 24th 2017. It features 472 clubs, 212 national teams and 34 leagues. Unlike most fantasy leagues however, we don't operate on national league systems rather choosing to unite various teams from various countries and even continents into one league!
How does Superliga operate?
Superliga is hosted on challengeplace.com where you can find our leagues and competitions. The scores are generated on a random basis via a program we have developed for this sole purpose. Teams within the league use their real life rosters and can create their formation if they wish to do so.
The main league's organization is SSFF which is the top level organization within the system. All other organizations are directly subordinated to the SSFF's President and Secretary of SSFF.
The main mission of SSFF are:
1) Organization of the overall league system for all zones
2) Organization of the levels directly under SSFF jurisdiction in Europe, Asia and Africa including competitions under direct organization (tier 1-7), SFL owned leagues (tier 8-15) and RSL owned leagues (tier 16-21)
3) Organization of the club competitions directly under SSFF jurisdiction managed in Europe, Asia and Africa including SSFF Champions League, SSFF Confederations Cup and SSFF Super Cup
4) Organization of SSFF World cup participated by qualified nations from WAFA and EAAF zone.
SSFF directly manages league competitions in the Eastern Zone while the handling of club competitions formed by separate continental groups falls under EAAF's wing.
Organization system at this moment:
Level 1 - SSFF organization (in charge of all competitions and system)
Level 2 - WAFA and EAAF (in charge of zonal football of Western and Eastern Zone respectively as well as their continetal organizations)
Level 3 - Continental organizations (CONAFA, CONCSA, EFA, CFA, AFF and OFA)
Level 4 - Continental suborganizations (AFLA, CAFA and CFU as part of CONAFA and ANZ as part of OFA)
Separate Level - SFL and RSL which are directly under SSFF jurisdiction belonging to their league organizational realm
Our organization system on Level 2 consists of two geographical zones - Eastern and Western with Europe, Asia and Africa forming the EAAF and North America, South America and Oceania (including Australia) forming the WAFA. Both of these organizations are subordinated to SSFF which is the main league organization.
WAFA's main goal is organizing the national teams qualifiers system for each of these zones, regulation of zonal club and league competitions for each season as well as establishing the ranking that will determine pots for the national team qualifiers.
The Western Conference under WAFA consists of the following confederations:
CONAFA - This league's counterpart to CONCACAF in charge of organizing club competitions (CONAFA Champions League and CONAFA Cup) along with the national teams qualifiers for SSFF Club World Cup.
CONAFA operates with 3 suborganizations that are in charge of club football affairs and organization of their own separate leagues from which main participants are drawn into club competitions. These suborganizations represent separate geographic regions within North America:
AFLA - organizing AFL Premier League and AFL Championship as well as President's Cup and AFL Supporters Shield contested by clubs from Canada, USA and Mexico
CAFA - organizing Liga America and Liga Central as well as La Copa and CAFA Super Cup contested by clubs from Central American countries such as Honduras, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
CFU - organizing CFU Division 1 and CFU Division 2 contested by clubs from Carribean zone
In the following posts we'll go into details about these competitions.
CONCSA - This league's counterpart to CONMEBOL in charge of organizing club competitions (CONAFA Champions Cup or Copa Campeones/Copa dos Campeoes and CONCSA Copa del SuCopa do Sul) along with the national teams qualifiers for SSFF World Cup.
CONCSA also operates a 3-level league system contested by clubs from South America known as:
- Primeira Liga (top level)
- Segunda Liga (second level)
- Terceira Liga (third level)
OFA - This league's counterpart to OFC in charge of organizing league competitions (O-League One and O-League Two), league cup competitions (OFA Silver Cup and Oceania Shield), club competitions (OFA Champions League) as well as national team qualifiers for SSFF World Cup.
OFA operates with a single suborganization known as ANZFA (Australia and New Zealand Football Association) which was created to balance out the power structure in O-League One and O-League Two thus giving a separate league system to majority of clubs from Australia and New Zealand (with an exception of some smaller NZ clubs taking part in O-League system).
ANZFA is in charge of organizing league competitions (A1 Soccer League and A2 Soccer League) and league cup competitions (ANZ League Trophy and Ellis Cup)
EAAF is an organization uniting the continental organizations of Europe, Asia and Africa. EAAF's main mission is organizing continental club competitions and organization of ranking systems for the continental club system as well as the national teams system determining pots for qualifiers system.
The Eastern Conference under EAAF consists of the following confederations:
EFA - This league's counterpart to UEFA in charge of organizing national team qualifiers system, allocation of slots for the continental club competitions as well as organizing continental club competitions such as EFA Champions Cup, EFA Europa Cup as well as EFA Solidarity Cup
AFF - This league's counterpart to AFC in charge of organizing national team qualifiers system, allocation of slots for the continental club competitions as well as organizing continental club competitions such as AFF Champions Cup, AFF Cup as well as AFF Solidarity Cup
CFA - This league's counterpart to CAF in charge of organizing national team qualifiers system, allocation of slots for the continental club competitions as well as organizing continental club competitions such as CFA Champions Cup and CFA Confederations Cup.
In the following posts we'll analyze the organizations and league competitions, so stay tuned!
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2020.08.07 23:02 Superfan234 bolivia crisis test 1

La Crisis Política en Bolivia ha generado una enorme cantidad de opiniones y comentarios por todo Reddit
En un anterior post, me remiti a responder escuetamente las preguntas mas comunes sobre este Conflicto
Ahora, en este Effortpost, les explicaré con lujo de detalles, como yo (y la población Boliviana) vivió el dia a dia la Crisis Electoral del 2019
Que papel tuvo la OAS? Fue realmente Estados Unidos quien tumbo a Evo? Realmente hubo manipulación Electoral? Quien Gano las elecciones?
Vamos alla!

The Original Sin: El Controversial Plebicito de 2016

Si tenemos que dar una fecha especifica para entender los turmoil events de 2019, sin duda debemos remontarnos al Plebicito del 21 de Febero de 2016. En este Plebicito, Evo Morales Aima llamo a la población Boliviana a votar una reforma consitucional que le permitiría re-elegirse para el periodo presidencial 2020-2025. Por un ajustado margen (51% por el No vs 49% por el Si) los Bolivianos decidieron impedir una nueva re-eleccion Evo Morales en 2019 [*]
Evo Morales, tras 13 años de estruendosas victorias electorales, tenia que aceptar la derrota. Hasta ese entonces, gozaba una popularidad sin igual en Bolivia, manteniendo al país con una economía estable [*] y junto a su partido (el MAS) controlaba todos los poderes del Estado. Le tomo unos días, pero a regañadientes, termina por aceptar su derrota
No obstante, unos meses después, Evo recurriría al Tribunal Constitucional por una segunda opinión. En 2017, en un fallo sumamente controversial, el Tribunal estimo que la prohibición de re-eleccion indefinida limitaba los Derechos Hunamos de Evo morales, por lo que este , si asi lo quería, podía presentarse a la re-eleccion cuantas veces quisiese [*]
El falllo fue, naturalmente, ferozmente criticado por la oposición. Y, en perspectiva, se convirtió en el mayor error politico que Evo Morales haya cometido jamás

Consecuencias del la re-eleccion indefinida

Hasta entonces, Evo había gozado de gran popularidad y aprecio por sectores muy variados de la Población. No solo “el pueblo llano”, sino también de los empresarios bolivianos, que veían con buenos ojos la estabilidad y crecimiento económico que vivía Bolivia, algo sumamente raro en ese país. Estos tiempos de prosperidad, habían reducido a la Oposición a cúpulas pequeñas, que pasaban su tiempo enfrascados en pleitos internos
La indudable decisión partidaria del TC, permitió que políticos de Oposición, que poco o nada compartían unos a otros, se sentaran juntos a defenderse frente a un enemigo común. Con el tiempo, Comunidades civiles se sumarian a los esfuerzos políticos, y juntos serían capaces de desencadenaría protestas y manifestaciones a través de todo el país, capitalizando el descontento político del Pueblo Boliviano
La OAS, por el contrario, no condenaría la decisión del Tribunal Constitucional. Sino por el contrario, el presidente de la OAS viajo expresamente a Bolivia a apoyar la elección indefinida de Evo Morales. [*] Para los que hayan escuchado de la Crisis Boliviana en otros medios masivos esto les puede sonar insolito, pero de hecho hay un explicación bastante convincente. Sin embargo, no nos vayamos por las ramas aun
Voy a ser lo más concreto posible: Hay 3 puntos centrales que son requisitors cruciales para enteder la Crisis Boliviana. Me voy a dar el tiempo de enumerarlos porque voy a volver constantemente a ellos
Los deseos de re-eleccion indefinida de Evo se tradujeron en tres problemas criticos
  • 1) Unión política de la Oposición: Partidos y Comunidades Civiles que poco o nada compartían entre sí, dejaron de lado sus diferencias políticas con tal de derrotar a Evo
  • 2) Desconfianza generalizada del Pueblo: El Renacer de las Dictaduras de Venezuela (~2017) y Nicaragua (~2018) , se convirtió en un sombrío augurio para los Bolivianos. Ambos regímenes se consolidaron por medio de farsas electorales. Por lo que el correcto conteo de los votos, se volvio absolutamente crucial
  • 3) Antagonismo con LatinoAmerica: LATAM, en su gran mayoría, buscaba un cambio de Gobierno en Venezuela a como dé lugar. El apoyo de Bolivia a Venezuela, podría resultar en un obstáculo fundamental para derrocar a Maduro
La combinacion de estos 3 factores, sumado a la percepción generalizada de Evo Morales como un personaje Corrupto, fue la mezcla explosiva que llevo al temor generalizdo de manipulación electoral en Bolivia Las protestas masivas, y esto es importante recordarlo, no fueron para apoyar a un candidato opositor en particular, sino contra el temor (justificado) que Evo instalo en población boliviana sobre caer en una Crisis similar a la Venezolana

Days before the Election

A inicio de Octubre de 2019, la tensión politica en Bolivia podía sentirse en el aire. Tres años de intentos para evitar la re-eleccion de Evo habían fracasado en lo Legal, pero electoralmente, habían triunfado de manera asombrosa
Desde 2005, Morales había vencido by landslide en todos los comicios presidenciales que había participado. En 2005 habia vencido a Jorge Quiroga 54% vs 29% , en 2009 vencio a Manfred Reyes por 64% vs 27% y en 2014 supero a Samuel Doria por un 61% vs 24. La popularidad de Evo, en principio, se veía invatible. Pero una parcial derrota en las elecciones municipales de 2015 [*] y principalmente su derrota en el Plebicito de 2016 , había sentado dudas sobre capacidad su capacidad de vencer en nuevos comicios presidenciales
Y las razones no eran menores. Evo se presentó el 2019, como siempre, con su proyecto Social Democrata Conservador con tientes indigenistas. Frente a él, Carlos Mesa, su principal rival político, presentaba un proyecto casi identico, pero sin los 13 años de escándalos de corrupción y Populismo desgastado que acompañaban a Evo
Los ciudadanos que se sentían a gusto con el modelo Bolivariano de Evo, podían sentir confianza que Mesa podía continuar los años de prosperidad, y al mismo tiempo, desintoxicar las instituciones del Estado saturadas de Corrupción. Era, a todas luces, una gran oportunidad para el cambio político en el país A medida que se acercaba la Eleccion, las encuenstas de opinión fueron cada vez más tétricas para Evo. Llegando solo un 37% de la votación en Primera Vuelta, se encontraba muy lejos del ~60% que había conseguido en elecciones del 2014 [*]
Para rematar, Chi Hyun y Oscar Ortiz (los otros dos candidatos fuertes de oposición) se presentaban en caso de Balotaje, más cercanos de apoyar a Carlos Mesa que a Evo, lo que hacia captar los votos de esas bancadas en Segunda vuelta, una tarea aun más compleja
Aunque la situación podía parecer lugrube, Existia sin embargo una posibilidad de vencer. En Bolivia, el candidato que obtenga mas del 40% de los votos y supere por 10% al segundo, es elegido vencedor en Primera Vuelta
Esto podría convertir a Evo marginalmente como vencedor en Primera vuleta, y asi lograr evitar un Balotaje. Por supuesta, el hecho que Evo pudiera resultar vencedor por un margen de un ~1%, no hacia mas que incrementar la presion social sobre el correcto recuento de los votos.
Los Politicos y Medios Opositores, también hicieron eco de esta preocupación, y meses antes de los elecciones, ya estaban llamando proteger los resultados, acusando al Gobierno de estar gestando un posible Fraude electoral[*][*][*]

The Day of the Election

El dia que todos esperaban, finalmente llego. El Domingo 20 de Octubre ciudadanos de los 9 Departamente de Bolivia fueron llamados a votar en las Urnas, sin que en principio se presentaran mayores complicaciones
Tras una mañana relativamente tranquila, los bolivianos se prepararon para los resultados de Boca de Urna y los del Conteo Rápido. A las ~19:00 horas El Tribunal Electoral informo que, con un 85% de los votos ya analizados, tanto la Boca de Urna, como el conteo rápido, permitían a Evo superar la barrara del 40%. Sin embargo, la diferencia de votos con Mesa se mantenía entre 9.3% y 6.9%, lo que le era insuficiente para ganar en Primera Vuelta
Estaba claro que el ganador seria definido por decimas. Y que los últimos votos saldrían de las áreas rurales, donde Evo se mantenía como gran favorito, pero como poca claridad si era suficiente para dar vuelta el resultado
Cuando todos los ojos y oídos de los bolivianos estaban pendiente de los resultados finales del conteo. A minutos del momento culmine de 4 años de conflicto político, el Tribunal Electoral, sin previo aviso, detiene el escrutinio de votos
Las alarmas de la oposición se encendieron rápidamente, y enardecidos, pidieron explicaciones a la corte electoral por el retraso en el recuento
La corte electoral, sin darle mucha importancia, comenzó a dar razones vagas, y realmente confusas para excusarse. Si bien al comienzo se atribuyo (informalmente) a problemas técnicos, el Tribunal Electoral termino por informar que detener el conteo rápido estaba “planificado de antemano”[*] y que los resultados finales, se sabrían eventualmente
Si este procesos estaba realmente estaba planificado o no, la duda fue suficiente para encender la mecha del descontento y la desconfianza que vivía todo el País. Rápidamente, ciudadanos comenzaron a protestar en las sedes del Tribunal Electoral[*], exigiendo que el conteo de votos se reanude

The days after the election

El Domingo 21 de Octubre, el Tribunal Electoral retomo el conteo de votos. Para descontento de la Oposición (y la alegría del Gobierno) los datos eran contundentes: Morales había vencido en primera vuelta, y el MAS mantenía el control tanto de la Camara Alta como de la Camara Baja
Esto no hizo más que enardecer en furia a la población opositora, que vio en el cambio de tendencia y secretismos del Gobierno, un claro intento de manipular los datos. Protestas comenzaron frente a los Tribunal Electorales del país [*]
En Potosi, La indignación se hizo evidente, una vez que el Tribunal Electoral , que en principio dio la victoria por boca de urna a Mesa por un 69%, había reducido este porcentaje a 34% en el conteo final [*]
Llegada la noche, tras varias horas de protestas sin respuesta, la violencia comenzó a crecer. Las sedes del Tribunales Electorales de Sucre y Potosi son quemadas en represalia.[*]. Protestas a favor y en contra de Morales comienzan a darse por todo el terriotrio nacional
La OEA, Union Europea y Estados Unidos mostraron su preocupación por la suspensión del conteo, y enviaron comunicados pidiendo explicaciones al gobierno[*]
Ese dia, un video viral comenzó a cirucular por Internet. En este, se podía ver al Dirigente Sindical Marco Pumari forzando su entrando a una bodega donde centenares de cajas de votos se encontraban guardadas. Transcribo las impresiones de Pumari:
Supuestamente al frente, el en Tribunal Electoral, ya están escrutando. Ya se esta haciendo el conteo de nuestros votos. Y que estan contando! Si aquí estan los votos de los Potosinos! ¿Que están contando las autoridades?
Si esto es lo que están haciendo en la Capital de Potosi…imaginanese que están haciendo en las áreas rurales! Por eso Evo Morales ha indicado que tenemos que “esperar el voto de las zonas rurales”. Hasta nos agradece los votos a los Potosinos! A quien debe agradecer Evo, es a esos corruptos del Tribunal Electoral, que hoy estan yendo en contra de la Poblacion!
Esto es inaceptable. Es un Delito! Hoy la policía intento impedir que entráramos a este recinto. La policía, resguardando a estos corruptos. Ningún Notario quiere venir en este momento para tomar acta de la situación. ¡Ninguno! Vamos a ir en este momento a presentar una denuncia ante la Justicia. Y quien sabe si nos harán caso, ya que la Justicia también esta en manos del Gobierno!
Les pregunto: ¿Que nos queda a nosotros por hacer, como Pueblo?
El video difundido por Marco Pumari enardeció a la población potosina, termino por incendiar el Tribunal Electoral. Pero este fue solo uno de muchos videos que, por las redes sociales, cuestionaban el actuar del Gobierno y el Tribunal Electoral en el conteo de los votos
Luis Fernando Camacho, un empresario y líder social Cruceño, convocaría un paro indefinido desde Santa Cruz, una de las ciudades más importantes de Bolivia, poniendo en jaque la sustentabilidad social y económica del gobierno
La iglesia católica, también mostraría su preocupación, advirtiendo indicios de fraude en la elección presidencial [*]
Mientras tanto, un grupo de Indigenas radicales, conocidos como los Ponchos Rojos, amenazaban a la oposición con tomar armas para defender a Evo y su Gobierno[*]. Misma amenazas hicieron los lideres Cocaleros, que históricamente, se habían caracterizado por su firme apoyo al presidente
A inicios de noviembre, la suerte ya estaba echada. Un conflicto mayúsculo se acercaba, y ambos bandos preveían que el derramamiento de sangre era inevitable. Es en estos momentos de máxima tensión, es que tenemos la intervención de la OAS

La Intervencion de la OAS

La OAS, comunidad que reúne a los los países LatinoAmericanos, es reflejo fiel de la apatía que profesan los países Hispanos a los conflictos Internacionales
La OAS, en teoría, podría poseer grandes poderes políticos en el Contiente Americano, quizás hasta relevancia a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, la desidia imperante en LatinoAmerica, incluso presente en grandes potencias como Brazil y Mexico, la ha limitado a maneternse como el gran defensor del Estatus quo en la Region. Moral o inmoral? Lo cierto es que los países Hispanos raramente intervenen en la política interna de sus vecinos, sin importar la gravedad del asunto que acontesca
Morales, naturalmente, ya contaba con esto. El mismo había participado por 13 años en esta organización, y conocía que la OAS podría llegar a tomar meses para obtener un dictamen final, y que, muy probablemete, solo se iba a limitar a sostener el Status Quo
Los líderes de oposición, por el contrario, hicieron todo lo posible por desligitimar el valor estadístico de la OAS. Ellos sabían que la posición pacifista de los países americanos en favor de Evo Morales iba a desligitimar la protestas, e incluso, hasta podrían detenerlas por completo
Por tanto, si querían tumbar a Evo, debían actuar lo más pronto posible, antes que el llamado a la calma de la OAS desmoralizara a los manifestantes

La Revolucion Boliviana

El conflicto estaba en marcha. Evo Morales iba a pedir calma a la población, esperando el dictamente de la OAS que, muy probablemente, le sentaría a su favor. La oposición buscaba extender las protestas al resto del pais, y hacer caer a Evo antes que la OAS apasiguara las protestas
Los Manifestaciones, por supuesto, no se hiceron esperar. Por el Este, Fernando Camacho liderando a los empresarios y clase acomodada de Santa Cruz, por el Oeste, el Lider Sindicalista Marco Pumari, liderando a la masa trabajadora e indígena de Potosi
Podría parecer curioso que ninguno de los candidatos presidenciales de la oposición liderara las protestas. Pero deben recordar que, con sus intentos de re-eleccion, muchos grupos civiles se habían organizado previamente en caso de ocurrir una situación de Fraude. Si bien estas comunidades provenían de grupos muy dispares, la fuerte oposicion a Evo fue suficiente para mantenerlos unidos politicamente
Estos grupos civiles, demostraron tener más alcance que los propios partidos de oposicion, y resutaron ser mucho más difíciles de contener para el Gobierno
Una de las grandes ventaja de estas comunidadas fue que no estaban salpicadas (aún) por la corrupción que caracterizaba a la Politica Boliviana y su único programa político definido, era estar en contra de Evo. Esto convertiría a sus representantes más populares, Camacho y Pumari, en lideres relatables y faciles de seguir
Por su parte, Evo Morales recurrio dos metodos para vencer: ejercer represión y bueno...dar lastima. Por un lado, usuaba sus fuerzas de choque para atacar violentamente a la oposición, siendo el punto culmine el intento de Siege a Santa Cruz[*]. Por el otro, buscaba dar la aparencia de Golpe de Estado ante la comunidad internacional [*]
Las fuerzas de choque de Evo contaban con armas ciertamente rudimentarias, pero muy peligrosas, siendo la Dinamita la más infame entre ellas. [*] [NSFL Link] No pasaría mucho tiempo para que los heridos se multiplicaran, y los primeros muertos comenzaran a caer
No obstante, la población boliviana (con una valentía realmente admirable), no se dejó doblegar. Una por una, las regiones bolivianas se levantaban en protesta, demostrando que, tanto que en animo y en cantidad, representaban la mayoría del país. Despues de uno días de struggles, el Gobierno se da cuenta que le iba a ser imposible detener las protestas con violencia, o con propaganda

Electoral manipulation is confirmed

El 8 de noviembre, Ethical Hacking, la empresa auditora contratada por el propio Tribunal Electoral para seguir el proceso de elección, Entrega su informe final[*]. Este informe, it was nothing short of devastating
Revelaron que, a las 19:30 del dia de las elecciones, desde un Server Desconocido, se comenzaron a recibir una gran cantidad de datos, que producían errores constantes la aplicación electoral. Buscando explicaciones, Ethical Hacking acude a los Vocales, quienes admiten que fueron ellos quienes accedieron al sistema electoral desde un server desconocido, pero por “curiosidad” de ver los datos (Recordemos que fue aproxidamadamente esta hora, que el Tribunal Electoral subitamente dejo de publicar el conteo de votos)
Pero esto resulto ser solo la punta del Iceberg. Durante los siguiente cinco dias, Ethical Hacking registro no uno ni dos, sino 12 brechas a protocolo del sistema electoral. El motivo para romper los protocolos resultaba variado, pero las consecuencias finales eran la misma: Las Actas electorales, podian haber sido modificadas a voluntad los Vocales del Tribunal Electoral, ya que no exitio supervisión alguna de un ente externo
La reacciónes en Bolivia no se hiceron espearar. Que la propia empresa contratada por el Gobierno inculpe al Tribunal Electoral de alterar los resultados, hubiese sido comico, si no fuese tan trágico
Ese mismo dia, ya hartos de ser usado contra la poblacion manifestante, fuerzas policiales en Cochamaba, Sucre y Santa Cruz se amotinaron contra el Gobierno [*]. Unos dias más tarde, les seguirían fuerzas policiales de La Paz
Las protestas, ahora contando con proteccion de la Policia local, crecieron a niveles Dantescos. Finalmente, lograron reunir la fuerza sufiencete para tomar el control del país

La traición de la OAS

Evo Morales se encontraba acorralado. Su apoyo popular era superado en número y organización por las fuerzas opositoras. La policía nacional no estaba dispuesta a reprimir a los manifestantes, y sus grupos de choque no poseían ni el armamento ni la planificación para combatir a los población disidente
En un intento desesperado por recuperar el control del país, despidió a los vocales del tribunal electoral, culpándolos a ellos de los errores en proceso, y prometió organizar nuevos comicios electorales[*]. Sin embargo, este acto de buena fe, no tendria valor alguno, ya que el mismo 10 de noviembre, contra todo pronostico, la OAS publica un “informe ejecutivo” donde confirma que los resultados electorales estaban viciados de nulidad, por lo que seria prudente realizar elecciones de nuevo
La respuesta de la politica boliviana fue de incredulidad total. No solo la OAS había adelantado sus informe, en contra de los designos del Gobierno[*], sino que fallaron abiertamente en contra de Evo, utilizando un lenguaje que practicamente animaba a los manifestantes a continuar las protestas
Fue quizas en ese momento, que Evo Morales finalmente comprendio que había sido traicionado. Su apoyo ferviente a un dictamen de la OAS, se había convertido en un arma de doble filo. Un arma que sin duda, la oposición ocuparia en su contra
Paralelamente, Altos Oficiales del Ejercito Boliviano se reunieron para decidir que podían hacer para recobrar el control del país. Por lo que sabemos, los Oficiales estaban preocupados de que, si la anarquia seguia creciendo, iba a ser imposoble evitar un derramamiento de sangre[*]. Por tanto, Williams Kaliman , el comandante en jefe de las Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia, pidio al presidente que renunciara, con el fin de poder recobrar la estabilidad political al país
Evo Morales, tras 13 años de Gobierno y casi 20 dias de lucha encarnizada, finalmente había perdido todo sosten politico. Unas horas más tarde, este presentaria su renuncia a los Medios de Comunicacion
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2020.08.07 16:00 ticktock3210 The Diploma Privilege Avery Connection

In case you didn't know, Wisconsin is the only state in the United States where you dont have to take a bar exam or ethics exam to become a lawyer.
Many states used to have a "diploma privilege" -- a set of course and grade requirements which, if fulfilled, allowed one to be admitted to practice without taking a bar exam. Wisconsin is now alone in retaining this privilege.
https://law.wisc.edu/current/diploma_privilege/
That's how Kratz became an attorney (Kratz went to Marquette). That's how Kachinsky became an attorney (Kachinsky went to a UW/Madison), that's how Willis became an attorney (Willis went to UW/Madison), that's how Fox became an attorney (Fox went to UW/Madison), and thats how Sutkiewicz became an attorney (Sutkiewicz went to Marquette). Meanwhile, all the other states have a BAR exam and an ETHICS exam that you have to pass before becoming a lawyer. Strang (UVA), Buting (UNC) and Zellner (Northern Illinois University) all had to take and pass a bar exam before being given the power to ruin other people's lives.
I still remember how SHOCKED I was to learn all the lawyers against Avery never passed a bar exam. Over time I realized diploma privilege explains everything. It explains how evil corrupt unethical people like Kratz can become lawyers. It explains how morons like Len Katchinsky can become lawyers. It explains why their judges make such bad decisions and then double-down with their shit games. It is the root of the problem.
To get diploma privilege, you just need to go to a Wisconsin law school and you only need a 2.0 GPA.
GPA Requirements: 2.0 in the MandatoryClasses and 60-Credit-Rule Courses (RTF 4.6.5
https://media.law.wisc.edu/s/c_571/c2m2q/jd-diploma_privilege_worksheet_fall_2013_.pdf
How pathetic is a 2.0 GPA? Well, a 2.0 GPA will get you into only 7 of 1,500+ colleges in the U.S. (probably all in Wisconsin).
With a 2.0 GPA, there are only a couple schools in the country where you'll have a high chance of being accepted. We've analyzed the student profiles at 1500+ colleges across the United States and the average GPA of its incoming students. Here's how a 2.0 GPA compares to the nation: 0.45% of schools have an average GPA below a 2.0.
https://www.prepscholar.com/sat/s/gpa/2.0-GPA-is-this-good-for-colleges
With requirements so pathetic, its no surprise everyone becomes an instant-lawyer.
Of the 213 students who received J.D. degrees during 2015, 212 of them took the courses that are required to satisfy the diploma privilege, and those 212 are treated as having "sat for" the Wisconsin bar exam in February or July of 2015. All 212 of those graduates satisfied the minimum GPA requirement in the diploma privilege courses, and are therefore treated as having "passed" the Wisconsin bar exam. The one other 2015 graduate sat for and passed the New York bar exam in July 2015.
Of the 184 students who received J.D. degrees during 2016, all 184 of them took the courses that are required to satisfy the diploma privilege, and those 184 are treated as having "sat for" the Wisconsin bar exam in February or July of 2016. All 184 graduates satisfied the minimum GPA requirement in the diploma privilege courses, and are therefore treated as having "passed" the Wisconsin bar exam.
Of the 153 students who received J.D. degrees during 2017, all 153 of them took the courses that are required to satisfy the diploma privilege, and those 153 are treated as having "sat for" the Wisconsin bar exam in February or July of 2017. All 153 graduates satisfied the minimum GPA requirement in the diploma privilege courses, and are therefore treated as having "passed" the Wisconsin bar exam.
https://law.wisc.edu/prospective/stats.html
Yep, everyone in a Wisconsin law school automatically becomes a Wisconsin lawyer. The Wisconsin law school website reads like a used car salesman ad. The University of Wisconsin calls diploma privilege "a safety net for you if for some reason you have difficulty taking a bar exam." Imagine if your medical school had diploma privilege and said on their website "a safety net for you if for some reason you have difficulty taking a medical exam." But wait, it looks like Wisconsin is getting worried and they changed their used car salesman ad.
March 2015: https://web.archive.org/web/20150309063952/http://law.wisc.edu/current/diploma_privilege/
And they were saying it in 2018:
May 2018: https://web.archive.org/web/20180504214743/https://law.wisc.edu/current/diploma_privilege/
But guess what. They don't say it anymore:
http://law.wisc.edu/current/diploma_privilege/
So if Daddy gets you into a Wisconsin law because he has connections, you are now a fucking lawyer and probably a DA. There is ZERO ACCOUNTABILITY. First step in fixing Wisconsin corruption is to get rid of diploma privilege. NO OTHER STATE does this because they know it leads to corruption. Corrupt Wisconsin politicians get their dim-wit kids into Wisconsin law schools and BLAMMO, they are attorneys who will write laws they probably don't even understand. Look at what just happened with the College Admissions scandal with Lori Loughlin. Now imagine that when these dopes get out of school, they are instantly attorneys. Thats what happens EVERY DAY in Wisconsin. Birdbrains of a feather flock together.
From what I read, no attorney wants to live or stay in Wisconsin. That's why they do diploma privilege. Otherwise everyone would clear out and just go to another state if Wisconsin actually tested its lawyers. So right away they aresn't starting with the best of the best. Its all downhill after that. Wisconsin is the anti-vaxxer of the US legal system. They basically say, yeah we are backwards, we dont give a shit and fuck you for telling us we are backwards. ONLY IN WISCONSIN can anyone become a DA or judge without ever having to pass a bar exam or ethics exam. It's completely crazy to think that every person coming out of school is good enough to be a lawyer. That's just nuts. If diploma privilege was such a good idea, you would think other places would do it. NOPE! Everywhere else in the world you have to pass a test to be a lawyer EXCEPT Wisconsin where they hand out law licenses like candy.
List of places that allow diploma privilege List of places that don't use diploma privilege
Wisconsin Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming, Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, America Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antarctica, Aruba, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde Islands, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Islands, Colombia, Comoros Islands, Congo, Congo D, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Dutch Antilles, East Timor, Easter Island, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Faroe Islands, Fiji Islands, Finland, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati Islands, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldive Islands, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Korea, Northern Mariana, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Island, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, St. Helena, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & Gren., Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau Islands, Tonga, Trinidad, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks & Caicos, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands US, Virgin Islands UK, Wallis & Futuna, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, AND Zimbabwe
If diploma privilege was such a good idea, you would think Wisconsin would do it for other professions. NOPE! Does Wisconsin give diploma privilege to their doctors. NOPE, because they don't want their doctors killing them. There is no diploma privilege for Wisconsin dentists, engineers, barber, cosmetologists, private investigators, you name it. They all have to pass a test first. In every state in the country, if your job is important (there is potential you can hurt someone), you have to pass a test before you can do the job. You need to prove you are competent before they let you out into the world working with innocent people who think you know what the fuck you are doing. Its common sense. If someone was sleeping through class and can't pass the licensing test, he isn't getting his license. If someone is dumb as fuck and can't pass the test, he isn't getting his license. Meanwhile, Wisconsin makes you pass a test before you can cut someones hair or paint someones nails (https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/454/I/07) but every moron who graduates from a Wisconsin law school automatically becomes a Wisconsin lawyer, no questions asked and no tests to take. Only in Wisconsin it's harder for a person to be licensed to take away someone's hair than to take away their freedom.
If there is anyone who thinks Avery is guilty but also thinks diploma privilege is a terrible idea, please speak up! Please don't comment unless you are a person who thinks Avery is guilty but also thinks diploma privilege is a bad idea.
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